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Cambrian Explosion
The Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion or Cambrian
Cambrian
radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 20[4][5]–25[6][7] million years
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Furongian
The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian. It lasted from 497 to 485.4 million years ago. It succeeds the still unnamed 3rd series of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and precedes the Lower Ordovician Tremadocian stage. It is subdivided into three stages: the Paibian, Jiangshanian and the unnamed 10th stage of the Cambrian.[1]Contents1 Naming 2 Definition 3 Subdivisions 4 Biostratigraphy 5 ReferencesNaming[edit] The Furongian was also known as the "Series 4" of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and replaced the older term "Upper Cambrian" and equivalent to the local term "Hunanian". The name "Furongian" was ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2003
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Cambrian Series 3
Cambrian
Cambrian
Series 3 is the still unnamed 3rd Series of the Cambrian. It lasted from about 509 to 497 million years ago and is divided into 3 stages: the unnamed Stage 5, the Drumian, and the Guzhangian. Cambrian Series 3 is preceded by also unnamed Cambrian
Cambrian
Series 2 and succeeded by the Furongian series.[1]Contents1 Naming 2 Definition 3 Subdivision 4 ReferencesNaming[edit] The International Commission on Stratigraphy still has to decide on the official name of the 2nd series of the Cambrian. The new name will also replace the older term "Middle Cambrian".[2] Definition[edit] The lower boundary of Series 3 has the same definition as Cambrian Stage 5. This boundary has not been formally defined yet by the ICS but a number of proposals for fossils and type sections have been made
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Terreneuvian
Coordinates: 47°04′34″N 55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310Delegates from the Ichnia 2012 conference inspect the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary at Fortune Head
Fortune Head
Ecological Reserve, Newfoundland, Canada. The boundary is defined on the appearance of the complex, vertical trace fossil Treptichnus (formerly Phycodes) pedum.The Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
is the lowermost and oldest series of the Cambrian geological system.[1] Its base is defined by the first appearance datum of the trace fossil Treptichnus pedum
Treptichnus pedum
around 541 million years ago
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Upper Cambrian
The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian. It lasted from 497 to 485.4 million years ago. It succeeds the still unnamed 3rd series of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and precedes the Lower Ordovician Tremadocian stage. It is subdivided into three stages: the Paibian, Jiangshanian and the unnamed 10th stage of the Cambrian.[1]Contents1 Naming 2 Definition 3 Subdivisions 4 Biostratigraphy 5 ReferencesNaming[edit] The Furongian was also known as the "Series 4" of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and replaced the older term "Upper Cambrian" and equivalent to the local term "Hunanian". The name "Furongian" was ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2003
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Middle Cambrian
Cambrian
Cambrian
Series 3 is the still unnamed 3rd Series of the Cambrian. It lasted from about 509 to 497 million years ago and is divided into 3 stages: the unnamed Stage 5, the Drumian, and the Guzhangian. Cambrian Series 3 is preceded by also unnamed Cambrian
Cambrian
Series 2 and succeeded by the Furongian series.[1]Contents1 Naming 2 Definition 3 Subdivision 4 ReferencesNaming[edit] The International Commission on Stratigraphy still has to decide on the official name of the 2nd series of the Cambrian. The new name will also replace the older term "Middle Cambrian".[2] Definition[edit] The lower boundary of Series 3 has the same definition as Cambrian Stage 5. This boundary has not been formally defined yet by the ICS but a number of proposals for fossils and type sections have been made
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Fortunian
Coordinates: 47°04′34″N 55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310Delegates from the Ichnia 2012 conference inspect the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary at Fortune Head
Fortune Head
Ecological Reserve, Newfoundland, Canada. The boundary is defined on the appearance of the complex, vertical trace fossil Treptichnus (formerly Phycodes) pedum.The Fortunian
Fortunian
stage marks the beginning of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era, and the Cambrian
Cambrian
period. It is the first of the two stages of the Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
series. Its base is defined as the first appearance of the trace fossil Treptichnus pedum
Treptichnus pedum
541 million years ago
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Neoproterozoic
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 541 million years ago.[1] It is the last era of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon and the Proterozoic Eon; it is subdivided into the Tonian, Cryogenian, and Ediacaran Periods
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Colony (biology)
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another. This association is usually for mutual benefit such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey.[1] It is a cluster of identical cells (clones) on the surface of (or within) a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell, as in bacterial colony.[2] In contrast, a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce. Colonies, in the context of development, may be composed of two or more unitary (or solitary) organisms or be modular organisms. Unitary organisms have determinate development (set life stages) from zygote to adult form and individuals or groups of individuals (colonies) are visually distinct
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Cambrian Stage 2
Stage 2 of the Cambrian
Cambrian
is the unnamed upper stage of the Terreneuvian series
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Phylum
In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Cambrian Stage 3
Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 3 is the still unnamed third stage of the Cambrian. It succeeds Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 2 and precedes Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 4, although neither its base nor top have been formally defined. The lower boundary is loosely defined as the first appearance of trilobites about 521 million years ago. The upper boundary and beginning of Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 4 is informally defined as the first appearance of the trilobite genera Olenellus
Olenellus
or Redlichia
Redlichia
around 514 million years ago.[1]Contents1 Naming 2 Biostratigraphy 3 Palaeontology3.1 Agnathans 3.2 Arthropods 3.3 Dinocarididans4 ReferencesNaming[edit] The International Commission on Stratigraphy has not officially named the 3rd stage of the Cambrian
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Cambrian Stage 4
Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 4 is the still unnamed 4th stage of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and the upper stage of the 2nd Cambrian
Cambrian
series. It follows the 3rd stage and lies below the Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 5. The lower boundary has not been formally defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. One proposal is the first appearance of two trilobite genera, Olenellus
Olenellus
or Redlichia. Another proposal is the first appearance of the trilobite species Arthricocephalus chauveaui.[1] Both proposals will set the lower boundary close to 514 million years ago.[2] The upper boundary corresponds to the beginning of Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 5 which also has not been formally defined yet
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Convergent Evolution
Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups. The cladistic term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy. The recurrent evolution of flight is a classic example, as flying insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats have independently evolved the useful capacity of flight. Functionally similar features that have arisen through convergent evolution are analogous, whereas homologous structures or traits have a common origin but can have dissimilar functions
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Cladistics
Cladistics
Cladistics
(from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e., "branch")[1] is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor. Hypothesized relationships are typically based on shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies) that can be traced to the most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant groups and ancestors. A key feature of a clade is that all descendants stay in their overarching ancestral clade. Radiation results in the generation of new subclades by bifurcation.[2][3][4][5] The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines
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Cambrian Stage 5
Stage 5 of the Cambrian
Cambrian
is the first stage of the 3rd series of the Cambrian
Cambrian
(or Middle Cambrian). Its lower boundary has not been formally defined by the ICS. The most promising definition is the first appearance of either the trilobite species Oryctocephalus indicus or Ovatoryctocara granulata which is currently estimated to be around 509 million years ago.[1] The end of Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 5 and the beginning of the Drumian stage is marked by the first appearance of the trilobite Ptychagnostus atavus
Ptychagnostus atavus
around 504.5 million years ago.[2]Contents1 Naming 2 GSSP 3 Palaeontology3.1 Arthropods 3.2 Dinocarididans4 ReferencesNaming[edit] The International Commission on Stratigraphy has not officially named the 5th stage of the Cambrian
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