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Calliphoridae
Sources: UniProt,[1] ITIS,[2] Whitworth[3]The Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(commonly known as blow flies, blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies)[2] are a family of insects in the order Diptera, with 1,100 known species. The maggot larvae, often used as fishing bait, are known as gentles.[4] The family is known to be polyphyletic, but much remains disputed regarding proper treatment of the constituent taxa,[5] some of which are occasionally accorded family status (e.g., Bengaliidae, Helicoboscidae, Polleniidae, and Rhiniidae). The name blow fly comes from an older English term for meat that had eggs laid on it, which was said to be fly blown
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Palearctic
The Palearctic or Palaearctic
Palaearctic
is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification. The Palearctic is the largest of the eight realms. It stretches across all of Europe, Asia
Asia
north of the foothills of the Himalayas, North Africa, and the northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The realm consists of several ecoregions: the Euro-Siberian region; the Mediterranean Basin; the Sahara
Sahara
and Arabian Deserts; and Western, Central and East Asia. The Palaearctic
Palaearctic
realm also has numerous rivers and lakes, forming several freshwater ecoregions
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Iteroparous
Semelparity and iteroparity
Semelparity and iteroparity
are two classes of possible reproductive strategies available to living organisms. A species is considered semelparous if it is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death, and iteroparous if it is characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the course of its lifetime. Some botanists use the parallel terms monocarpy and polycarpy. (See also plietesials.) In truly semelparous species, death after reproduction is part of an overall strategy that includes putting all available resources into maximizing reproduction, at the expense of future life (see "Trade-offs", below)
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Arista (insect Anatomy)
In insect anatomy the arista is a simple or variously modified apical or subapical bristle, arising from the third antennal segment. It is the evolutionary remains of antennal segments, and may sometimes show signs of segmentation. These segments are called aristameres. The arista may be bare, sometime appearing no more than a simple bristle, pubescent - covered in short hairs, or plumose - covered in long hairs. The presence of an arista is a feature of the Diptera suborder Brachycera
Brachycera
and may be especially well-developed in some species. It is known to contain thermo and hygroreceptors in Diptera that helps the flies to detect changes in temperature and moisture.[1][2]References[edit]^ Foelix, R. F., Stocker, R. F. & Steinbrecht, R.A. (1989). Fine structure of a sensory organ in the arista of Drosophila melanogaster and some other dipterans
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Chaetotaxy
Chaetotaxy
Chaetotaxy
is the arrangement of bristles (macrochaetae) on an insect or mite, or taxonomy based on their position and size. For example, it is important in Diptera, in which group it was formalised by Ernst August Girschner. The term chaetotaxy was later proposed by Carl Robert Osten-Sacken.Morphology and chaetotaxy of the head of a fly (Muscomorpha)The chaetotaxy of a fly might include :- acrostichal, dorsocentral, humeral, mesopleural, sternopleural, notopleural, postalar, supraalar and scutellar bristles on the thorax; dorsal, posterodorsal, anterodorsal, ventral, posteroventral and anteroventral bristles on the legs and ocellar, orbital, postvertical, vibrissal, outer vertical and inner vertical bristles on the head. References[edit]Capinera, J.L. (editor). 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology, 2nd Edition. Vols. 1-4. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 1-4020-6242-7. McAlpine, J.F. 1981 Morphology and terminology - Adults
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Bristle
A bristle is a stiff hair or feather (natural or artificial), either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom.Contents1 Varieties 2 Variations of bristle in the animal kingdom 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksVarieties[edit]Closeup of bristles on an oil paintbrushSynthetic materials such as nylon are also used to make bristles in items such as brooms and sweepers. Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning purposes, as they are strongly abrasive; common examples include the toothbrush and toilet brush. The bristle brush and the scrub brush are common household cleaning tools, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans
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Anautogeny
In entomology, anautogeny is a reproductive strategy in which an adult female insect must eat a particular sort of meal (generally vertebrate blood) before laying eggs in order for her eggs to mature.[1] This behavior is most common among dipteran insects, such as mosquitoes.[2] Anautogenous animals often serve as vectors for infectious disease in their hosts because of their contact with hosts' blood. The opposite trait (needing no special food as an adult to successfully reproduce) is known as autogeny.[3]Contents1 Factors governing anautogeny 2 Anatomy and physiology 3 Autogeny 4 See also 5 ReferencesFactors governing anautogeny[edit] Anautogenous insects generally reach adulthood without sufficient reserves of nutrients (particularly protein) to produce viable eggs, necessitating additional feeding as adults
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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The Tempest
The Tempest
The Tempest
is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–11, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote alone. It is set on a remote island, where the sorcerer Prospero, rightful Duke of Milan, plots to restore his daughter Miranda to her rightful place using illusion and skillful manipulation. He conjures up a storm, the eponymous tempest, to cause his usurping brother Antonio and the complicit King Alonso of Naples to believe they are shipwrecked and marooned on the island
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Instar
An instar (/ˈɪnstɑːr/ ( listen), from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.[1] Arthropods
Arthropods
must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, changes in the number of body segments or head width. After moulting, i.e. shedding their exoskeleton, the juvenile arthropods continue in their life cycle until they either pupate or moult again
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Proteolytic
Proteolysis
Proteolysis
is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases, but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion. Low pH or high temperatures can also cause proteolysis non-enzymatically. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
in organisms serves many purposes; for example, digestive enzymes break down proteins in food to provide amino acids for the organism, while proteolytic processing of a polypeptide chain after its synthesis may be necessary for the production of an active protein. It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells
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Poikilothermic
A poikilotherm (/ˈpɔɪkələˌθɜːrm, pɔɪˈkɪləˌθɜːrm/) is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably. It is the opposite of a homeotherm, an animal which maintains thermal homeostasis. While the term in principle can apply to all organisms, it is usually only applied to animals, and mostly to vertebrates. Usually the variation is a consequence of variation in the ambient environmental temperature. Many terrestrial ectotherms are poikilothermic.[1] However some ectotherms remain in temperature-constant environments to the point that they are actually able to maintain a constant internal temperature (i.e. are homeothermic). It is this distinction that often makes the term "poikilotherm" more useful than the vernacular "cold-blooded", which is sometimes used to refer to ectotherms more generally. Poikilothermic animals include types of vertebrate animals, specifically fish, amphibians, and reptiles, as well as a large number of invertebrate animals
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Carrion Flower
Carrion
Carrion
flowers, also known as corpse flowers or stinking flowers, are flowers that emit an odor that smells like rotting flesh. Carrion flowers attract mostly scavenging flies and beetles as pollinators. Some species may trap the insects temporarily to ensure the gathering and transfer of pollen.Contents1 Plants known as "carrion flower"1.1 Amorphophallus 1.2 Rafflesia 1.3 Stapelia 1.4 Smilax
Smilax
or Nemexia 1.5 Bulbophyllum
Bulbophyllum
(Orchid)2 Scent 3 Other plants with carrion-scented flowers 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPlants known as "carrion flower"[edit] Amorphophallus[edit] Many plants in the genus Amorphophallus
Amorphophallus
(family Araceae) are known as carrion flowers
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Odor
An odor, odour or fragrance is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are also commonly called scents, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms fragrance and aroma are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes, and to describe floral scent. In contrast, malodor, stench, reek, and stink are used specifically to describe unpleasant odor. The term smell (in its noun form) is used for both pleasant and unpleasant odors. In the United Kingdom, odour refers to scents in general
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