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Calliphoridae
Sources: UniProt, ITIS, Whitworth The CALLIPHORIDAE (commonly known as BLOW FLIES, BLOW-FLIES, CARRION FLIES, BLUEBOTTLES, GREENBOTTLES, or CLUSTER FLIES) are a family of insects in the order Diptera
Diptera
, with 1,100 known species. The maggot larvae, often used as fishing bait, are known as GENTLES. The family is known to be polyphyletic , but much remains disputed regarding proper treatment of the constituent taxa, some of which are occasionally accorded family status (e.g., Bengaliidae, Helicoboscidae, Polleniidae, and Rhiniidae). The name blow fly comes from an older English term for meat that had eggs laid on it, which was said to be fly blown . The first known association of the term "blow" with flies appears in the plays of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
: Love\'s Labour\'s Lost , The Tempest , and Antony and Cleopatra
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Anautogeny
In entomology , ANAUTOGENY is a reproductive strategy in which an adult female insect must eat a particular sort of meal (generally vertebrate blood ) before laying eggs in order for her eggs to mature. This behavior is most common among dipteran insects, such as mosquitoes . Anautogenous animals often serve as vectors for infectious disease in their hosts because of their contact with hosts' blood. The opposite trait (needing no special food as an adult to successfully reproduce) is known as AUTOGENY. CONTENTS * 1 Factors governing anautogeny * 2 Anatomy and physiology * 3 Autogeny * 4 See also * 5 References FACTORS GOVERNING ANAUTOGENYAnautogenous insects generally reach adulthood without sufficient reserves of nutrients (particularly protein ) to produce viable eggs, necessitating additional feeding as adults. A high-protein meal, usually of blood, allows the production of yolk to nourish the eggs and makes reproduction possible
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Iteroparous
SEMELPARITY and ITEROPARITY are two classes of possible reproductive strategies available to living organisms. A species is considered semelparous if it is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death, and iteroparous if it is characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the course of its lifetime. Some botanists use the parallel terms monocarpy and polycarpy . (See also plietesials .) In truly semelparous species, death after reproduction is part of an overall strategy that includes putting all available resources into maximizing reproduction, at the expense of future life (see "Trade-offs ", below). In any iteroparous population there will be some individuals who die between their first and second reproductive episodes, but unless this is part of a syndrome of programmed death after reproduction, this would not be called semelparity. This distinction is also related to the difference between annual and perennial plants
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Larva
A LARVA (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/ ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults . Animals with indirect development such as insects , amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle . The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies ). A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs . By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Bristle
A BRISTLE is a stiff hair or feather (natural or artificial), either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom . CONTENTS * 1 Varieties * 2 Variations of bristle in the animal kingdom * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links VARIETIES Closeup of bristles on an oil paintbrush Synthetic materials such as nylon are also used to make bristles in items such as brooms and sweepers. Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning purposes, as they are strongly abrasive; common examples include the toothbrush and toilet brush . The bristle brush and the scrub brush are common household cleaning tools, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans. Bristles are also used on brushes other than for cleaning, notably paintbrushes. Bristles are distinguished as flagged (split, bushy ends) or unflagged; these are also known as flocked or unflocked bristles
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Calypter
A CALYPTER is either of two posterior lobes of the posterior margin of the forewing of flies between the extreme posterior wing base and the alula , which covers the halteres . The lower calypter is the proximal calypter (synonyms: squama (of some authors), tegula ) and the upper calypter is the distal calypter (synonym: squamula). Species of the subsection Acalyptratae are noted for lacking calypters. REFERENCES This article related to members of the insect order Diptera (true flies) is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This insect anatomy-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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The Tempest
THE TEMPEST is a play by William Shakespeare , believed to have been written in 1610–11, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone. It is set on a remote island, where the sorcerer Prospero , rightful Duke of Milan , plots to restore his daughter Miranda to her rightful place using illusion and skilful manipulation. He conjures up a storm, the eponymous tempest, to cause his usurping brother Antonio and the complicit King Alonso of Naples to believe they are shipwrecked and marooned on the island. There, his machinations bring about the revelation of Antonio's lowly nature, the redemption of the King, and the marriage of Miranda to Alonso's son, Ferdinand
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Antony And Cleopatra
ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA is a tragedy by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
. The play was performed first circa 1607 at the Blackfriars Theatre
Blackfriars Theatre
or the Globe Theatre by the King\'s Men . Its first appearance in print was in the Folio of 1623. The plot is based on Thomas North 's translation of Plutarch
Plutarch
's Lives and follows the relationship between Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
from the time of the Sicilian revolt to Cleopatra's suicide during the Final War of the Roman Republic . The major antagonist is Octavius Caesar , one of Antony's fellow triumvirs of the Second Triumvirate and the first emperor of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Antenna (biology)
ANTENNAE (singular: ANTENNA), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods . Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs , the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch , air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste . Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate. Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larval forms that use their antennae for swimming
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Instar
An INSTAR (/ˈɪnstɑːr/ ( listen ), from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods , such as insects , between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, changes in the number of body segments or head width. After moulting, i.e. shedding their exoskeleton, the juvenile arthropods continue in their life cycle until they either pupate or moult again. This period of growth, instar, is fixed. Some arthropods can continue to moult after sexual maturity, but the stages between these subsequent moults are generally not called instars
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Proteolytic
PROTEOLYSIS is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids . Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases , but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion. Low pH or high temperatures can also cause proteolysis non-enzymatically. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
in organisms serves many purposes; for example, digestive enzymes break down proteins in food to provide amino acids for the organism, while proteolytic processing of a polypeptide chain after its synthesis may be necessary for the production of an active protein. It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. Consequently, dis-regulation of proteolysis can cause diseases and is used in some venoms to damage their prey
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Neotropical
The NEOTROPICAL REALM is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Physically, it includes the tropical terrestrial ecoregions of the Americas
Americas
and the entire South American temperate zone
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Palearctic
The PALEARCTIC or PALAEARCTIC is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's surface. It consists of Europe
Europe
, Asia
Asia
north of the foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
, North Africa
North Africa
, and the northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. The Palearctic realm comprises the smaller terrestrial ecoregions of the Euro-Siberian region ; the Mediterranean Basin ; the Sahara and Arabian Deserts ; and Western , Central and East Asia
Asia
. The Palaearctic realm also has numerous rivers and lakes, forming several freshwater ecoregions. Some of the rivers were the source of water for the earliest recorded civilizations that used irrigation methods
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Nearctic
The NEARCTIC is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. The Nearctic
Nearctic
realm The Nearctic
Nearctic
realm covers most of North America
North America
, including Greenland , Central Florida , and the highlands of Mexico
Mexico
. The parts of North America that are not in the Nearctic
Nearctic
realm are Eastern Mexico, Southern Florida , Central America
Central America
, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands which are part of the Neotropical realm , together with South America
South America

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Dead Horse Arum
HELICODICEROS MUSCIVORUS (DEAD HORSE ARUM LILY) is an ornamental plant native to Corsica , Sardinia and the Balearic Islands . It is the only species in the genus HELICODICEROS. Within the Araceae family the plant is part of the Aroideae subfamily. The flowers of H. muscivorus smell like rotting meat, attracting carrion-seeking blow flies which act as pollinators . One of a rare group of thermogenic plants , the dead horse arum can raise its temperature by thermogenesis . This helps to lure flies into the plant to contact its pollen. The plant still is being studied for the way it is able to produce its own heat without being necessarily dependent of ambient temperature. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Thermogeny * 3 Pollination * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONThe inflorescence of the arum lilies is a three-part spadix which resembles the anal area of a dead mammal
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Odor
An ODOR or ODOUR or FRAGRANCE is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds , generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction . Odors are also commonly called SCENTS, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms FRAGRANCE and AROMA are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes , and to describe floral scent . In contrast, MALODOR, STENCH, REEK, and STINK are used specifically to describe unpleasant odor. The term SMELL (in its noun form) is used for both pleasant and unpleasant odors. In the United Kingdom, odour refers to scents in general. In the United States and for many non-native English speakers around the world, odor generally has a negative connotation, as a synonym for stink; on the other hand, scent or aroma are used by those people to indicate "pleasant smells"
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