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California Oak Woodland
California
California
oak woodland is a plant community found throughout the California chaparral and woodlands
California chaparral and woodlands
ecoregion of California
California
in the United States
United States
and northwestern Baja California
California
in Mexico. Oak woodland is widespread at lower elevations in coastal California; in interior valleys of the Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges
Transverse Ranges
and Peninsular Ranges; and in a ring around the California
California
Central Valley grasslands
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Old Growth Forest
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, late seral forest, or (in Great Britain) ancient woodland — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.[1] Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide
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Pinus Ponderosa
Pinus
Pinus
ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine,[2] bull pine, blackjack pine,[3] or western yellow-pine,[4] is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America.[5]:4 It grows in various erect forms from British Columbia
British Columbia
southward and eastward through 16 western U.S. states and has been successfully introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane (of which it is the official city tree). On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus
Pinus
resinosa (red pine). In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus
Pinus
ponderosa[6] for its heavy wood
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Quercus Berberidifolia
Quercus berberidifolia, the California
California
scrub oak, is a small evergreen or semi-evergreen shrubby oak in the white oak section of Quercus. It is a native of the scrubby hills of California, and is a common member of chaparral ecosystems.[3]Contents1 Description 2 Other species 3 Chaparral
Chaparral
origins 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Quercus berberidifolia
Quercus berberidifolia
grows to 1–2 meters (40-80 inches) tall, rarely to 4 meters (160 inches)or 10 feet), and has sharply toothed, dull green leaves which are 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.5–1 in) broad, leathery on their top surfaces and somewhat hairy underneath
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Arbutus Menziesii
Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii, the Pacific madrone or madrona, is a species of tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the western coastal areas of North America, from British Columbia
British Columbia
to California.Contents1 Common names 2 Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Cultivation 5 Uses 6 Conservation 7 Largest specimen burned 8 References 9 Works cited 10 External linksCommon names[edit] Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii lignotuber near ground level provides fire-resistant storage of energy and sprouting buds if fire damage requires replacement of the trunk or limbs.It is also known as the madroa,[3] madroño, madroña, or bearberry. The name "strawberry tree" (A. unedo) may also be found in relation to A. menziesii (though it has no relation to the strawberry fruit)
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Quercus Wislizeni
Quercus wislizenii A.DC.Quercus wislizeni, known by the common name interior live oak,[3] is an evergreen oak, highly variable and often shrubby, found in many areas of California[5] in the United States continuing south into northern Baja California in Mexico. It generally occurs in foothills, being most abundant in the lower elevations of the Sierra Nevada, but also widespread in the Pacific Coast Ranges ─ where since 1980 it has been known as a separate species Quercus parvula[6][7] ─ and the San Gabriel Mountains. It was named for its collector, Friedrich Adolph Wislizenus (1810–1889).[3]Contents1 Description 2 Nomenclature 3 Ecology 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] It is a large shrub or tree[8] growing to 22 meters (72 feet) tall, although where it is common in the low elevation Sierra foothills it seldom exceeds 10 meters (33 feet)
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Quercus Garryana
Quercus garryana, the Garry oak, Oregon white oak, Oregon oak, or Hu'dshnam, from the traditional Klamath language, is a tree species with a range stretching from southern California to southwestern British Columbia. It grows from sea level to 210 meters (690 ft) altitude in the northern part of its range, and at 300 to 1,800 meters (980 to 5,910 ft) in the south of the range in California. The tree gets one of its names from Nicholas Garry, deputy governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1822–35.[3]Contents1 Range 2 Varieties 3 Growth characteristics 4 Natural History 5 Uses 6 Conservation 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksRange[edit] In British Columbia, the Garry oak grows on the Gulf Islands and southeastern Vancouver Island, from west of Victoria along the east side of the island up to the Campbell River area
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Cascade Range
The Cascade Range
Cascade Range
or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia
British Columbia
through Washington and Oregon
Oregon
to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, and the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades. The small part of the range in British Columbia
British Columbia
is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is also sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U.S. term, as in North Cascades
North Cascades
National Park
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Klamath-Siskiyou
The Klamath Mountains
Klamath Mountains
ecoregion of Oregon
Oregon
and California
California
lies inland and north of the Coast Range ecoregion, extending from the Umpqua River in the north to the Sacramento Valley
Sacramento Valley
in the south. It encompasses the highly dissected ridges, foothills, and valleys of the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains. It corresponds to the Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency and to the Klamath-Siskiyou forests ecoregion designated by the World Wide Fund for Nature.[2] The ecoregion, also known as a geomorphic province,[3] was unglaciated during the Pleistocene epoch, when it served as a refuge for northern plant species. Its mix of granitic, sedimentary, metamorphic, and extrusive rocks contrasts with the predominantly volcanic rocks of the Cascades ecoregion to the northeast
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Cercis Occidentalis
Cercis occidentalis, the western redbud or California redbud (syn. Cercis orbiculata — Greene), is a small tree or shrub in the legume family. It is found across the American Southwest, from California to Utah and Arizona.[1][2] It is easily recognized when it is in bloom from March to May, when it is covered with small pink to purple flowers.Contents1 Description 2 Uses2.1 Cultivation3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] Cercis occidentalis has thin, shiny brown branches that bear shiny heart-shaped leaves which are light green early in the season and darken as they age. Leaves on plants at higher elevation may turn gold or red as the weather cools. The showy flowers are bright pink or magenta, and grow in clusters all over the shrub, making the plant very colorful and noticeable in the landscape
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Plant Community
A plant community (sometimes "phytocoenosis" or "phytocenosis") is a collection or association[1] of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types. The components of each plant community are influenced by soil type, topography, climate and human disturbance. In many cases there are several soil types within a given phytocoenosis.[2]Alpine Heathland plant community at High Shelf Camp near Mount Anne, Tasmania, AustraliaA plant community can be described floristically (the species it contains) and/or physiognomically (its physical structure). For example, a forest (a community of trees) includes the overstory, or upper tree layer of the canopy, as well as the understory, further subdivided into the shrub layer, herbaceous layer, and sometimes also moss layer. In some cases of complex forests there is also a well-defined lower tree layer
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Central Valley (California)
The Central Valley
Valley
is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of California. It is 40 to 60 miles (60 to 100 km) wide and stretches approximately 450 miles (720 km) from north-northwest to south-southeast, inland from and parallel to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
coast. It covers approximately 18,000 square miles (47,000 km2),[1] about 11% of California's total land area (or about the size of Denmark)
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Pinus Coulteri
The Coulter pine
Coulter pine
or big-cone pine, Pinus
Pinus
coulteri, is a native of the coastal mountains of Southern California
Southern California
and northern Baja California (Mexico). Isolated groves are found as far north as the San Francisco Bay Area in Mt. Diablo State Park
Mt. Diablo State Park
and Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve. The species is named after Thomas Coulter, an Irish botanist and physician. The Coulter pine
Coulter pine
produces the heaviest cone of any pine tree. Although it has a limited range in the wild, it is a popular ornamental tree.Contents1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Uses 4 Gallery 5 References 6 Notes6.1 Further reading7 External linksDescription[edit] Pinus
Pinus
coulteri is a substantial coniferous evergreen tree in the genus Pinus
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California Channel Islands
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, and the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were then displaced by European settlers who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U.S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, and as a strategic defensive location
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Quercus Agrifolia
Quercus agrifolia, the California live oak[3] or coast live oak, is a highly variable, often shrubby evergreen oak tree, a type of live oak, native to the California Floristic Province. It grows west of the Sierra Nevada mountain range from Mendocino County, California, south to northern Baja California
Baja California
in Mexico.[4] It is classified in the red oak section of live oaks (Quercus sect
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Northern California
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties[1][2] its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento
Sacramento
area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno
Fresno
area (anchored by the city of Fresno)
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