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Caldera
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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1815 Eruption Of Mount Tambora
The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
was one of the most powerful in recorded history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
(VEI) of 7. It is the most recently known VEI-7 event and the only unambiguously confirmed VEI-7 eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 AD.[1] Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
is on the island of Sumbawa
Sumbawa
in present-day Indonesia (formerly part of the Netherlands East Indies). Although its eruption reached a violent climax on 10 April 1815,[2] increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions occurred during the next six months to three years. The ash from the eruption column dispersed around the world and lowered global temperatures, in an event sometimes known as the Year Without a Summer in 1816.[3] This brief period of significant climate change triggered extreme weather and harvest failures in many areas around the world
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Fracture (geology)
A fracture is any separation in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces. A fracture will sometimes form a deep fissure or crevice in the rock. Fractures are commonly caused by stress exceeding the rock strength, causing the rock to lose cohesion along its weakest plane.[1] Fractures can provide permeability for fluid movement, such as water or hydrocarbons. Highly fractured rocks can make good aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs, since they may possess both significant permeability and fracture porosity.Contents1 Brittle deformation 2 Causes2.1 Modes 2.2 Tensile fractures 2.3 Joint types[3] 2.4 Faults and shear fractures 2.5 Subcritical crack growth3 Engineering considerations 4 Fracture
Fracture
terminology 5 See also 6 ReferencesBrittle deformation[edit] Fractures are forms of brittle deformation.[2] There are two types of primary brittle deformation processes. Tensile fracturing results in joints
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Intrusion
Intrusive rock
Intrusive rock
(also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.[1][2][3]Contents1 Formation 2 Related forms 3 Related terms 4 Intrusive suite 5 Variations 6 Structural types 7 Characteristics 8 See also 9 ReferencesFormation[edit] Intrusive rock
Intrusive rock
forms within Earth's crust from the crystallization of magma. Many mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada in California, are formed mostly from large granite (or related rock) intrusions; see Sierra Nevada batholith. Related forms[edit] Intrusions are one of the two ways igneous rock can form; the other is extrusive rock, that is, a volcanic eruption or similar event. Technically speaking, an intrusion is any formation of intrusive igneous rock; rock formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the planet
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Ore Deposit
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.[1] The ores are extracted from the earth through mining; they are then refined (often via smelting) to extract the valuable element, or elements. The grade or concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighed against the metal value contained in the rock to determine what ore can be processed and what ore is of too low a grade to be worth mining. Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals (such as native copper) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth's crust, or noble metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold. The ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals
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Mineralization (geology)
In geology, mineralization is the deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or "lodes" by various process. The first scientific studies of this process took place in the English county of Cornwall
Cornwall
by J.W.Henwood FRS and later by R.W. Fox, FRS.[1] The term can also refer to the process by which waterborne minerals, such as calcium carbonate (calcite), iron oxide (hematite or limonite) or silica (quartz), replace organic material within the body of an organism that has died and was buried by sediments.[2] Mineralization may also refer to the product resulting from the process of mineralization. For example, mineralization (the process) may introduce metals (such as iron) into a rock. That rock may then be referred to as possessing iron mineralization. See also[edit] Ore
Ore
genesisReferences[edit]^ Embrey, P. G. and Symes, R. F
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Northwestern Ontario
Northwestern Ontario
Ontario
is a secondary region of Northern Ontario
Ontario
which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
and James Bay. It includes most of subarctic Ontario. Its western boundary is the Canadian province of Manitoba, which disputed Ontario's claim to the western part of the region. Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario
Ontario
was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884[1] and confirmed by the Canada
Canada
( Ontario
Ontario
Boundary) Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
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Neoarchean
Not to be confused with archaea, in spite of biological discussion commonly alluding to the only life forms of that era, e.g. microbes The Neoarchean (/ˌniːoʊɑːrˈkiːən/; also spelled Neoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon. The Neoarchean spans the period from 2,800 to 2,500 million years ago—the period being defined chronometrically and not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth.Contents1 Complex life 2 Continental formation 3 References 4 External linksComplex life[edit] During this era, oxygenic photosynthesis first evolved, releasing an abundance of oxygen, that first reacted with minerals and afterward was free to react with greenhouse gases of the atmosphere, leaving the Earth's surface free to radiate its energy to space
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Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra
is a large island in western Indonesia
Indonesia
that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is located entirely in Indonesia
Indonesia
(after Borneo, which is shared between Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands). Sumatra
Sumatra
is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra
Sumatra
with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias
Nias
and Mentawai off the western coast
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Era (geology)
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time. The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon is divided into three such time frames: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
Cenozoic
represent the major stages in the macroscopic fossil record. These eras are separated by catastrophic extinction boundaries, the P-T boundary between the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and the K-Pg boundary
K-Pg boundary
between the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and the Cenozoic. There is evidence that catastrophic meteorite impacts played a role in demarcating the differences between the eras. The Hadean, Archean
Archean
and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eons were as a whole formerly called the Precambrian
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Explosive Eruption
An explosive eruption is a volcanic term to describe a violent, explosive type of eruption. Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
in 1980 is an example. Such eruptions result when sufficient gas has dissolved under pressure within a viscous magma such that expelled lava violently froths into volcanic ash when pressure is suddenly lowered at the vent. Sometimes a lava plug will block the conduit to the summit, and when this occurs, eruptions are more violent. Explosive eruptions can send rocks, dust, gas and pyroclastic material up to 20 km into the atmosphere at a rate of up to 100,000 tonnes per second,[citation needed] traveling at several hundred meters per second
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Silica
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance Transparent solid (Amorphous) White/Whitish Yellow (Powder/Sand
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Igneous Rock
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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