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Calculator
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. The first solid state electronic calculator was created in the early 1960s. The pocket sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the first microprocessor, the Intel
Intel
4004, developed by Intel
Intel
for the Japanese calculator company Busicom. They later became used commonly within the petroleum industry (oil and gas). Modern electronic calculators vary: from cheap, give-away, credit-card-sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers. They became popular in the mid-1970s (as integrated circuits made their size and cost small)
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Variable (mathematics)
In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula, which allows one to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them. The concept of a variable is also fundamental in calculus. Typically, a function y = f(x) involves two variables, y and x, representing respectively the value and the argument of the function
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Comma
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text
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Symbolic Computation
In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects. Although, properly speaking, computer algebra should be a subfield of scientific computing, they are generally considered as distinct fields because scientific computing is usually based on numerical computation with approximate floating point numbers, while symbolic computation emphasizes exact computation with expressions containing variables that have no given value and are manipulated as symbols. Software applications that perform symbolic calculations are called computer algebra systems, with the term system alluding to the complexity of the main applications that include, at least, a method to represent mathematical data in a computer, a user programming language (usually different from the language used for the im
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Euclidean Space
In geometry, Euclidean space
Euclidean space
encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces. It is named after the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria.[1] The term "Euclidean" distinguishes these spaces from other types of spaces considered in modern geometry. Euclidean spaces also generalize to higher dimensions. Classical Greek geometry defined the Euclidean plane and Euclidean three-dimensional space using certain postulates, while the other properties of these spaces were deduced as theorems. Geometric constructions are also used to define rational numbers. When algebra and mathematical analysis became developed enough, this relation reversed and now it is more common to define Euclidean space
Euclidean space
using Cartesian coordinates
Cartesian coordinates
and the ideas of analytic geometry
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Keyboard (computing)
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys (buttons) and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface to type text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other programs. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software
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Numerical Digit
A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems. The single digits –as one-digit-numerals– and their combinations (such as "25") are the numerals of the numeral system they belong to. The name "digit" comes from the fact that the ten digits ( Latin
Latin
digiti meaning fingers)[1] of the hands correspond to the ten symbols of the common base 10 numeral system, i.e. the decimal (ancient Latin
Latin
adjective decem meaning ten)[2] digits. For a given numeral system with an integer base, the number of digits required to express arbitrary numbers is given by the absolute value of the base
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Number
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and so forth.[1] A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral.[2] In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers), for ordering (as with serial numbers), and for codes (as with ISBNs). In common usage, number may refer to a symbol, a word, or a mathematical abstraction. In mathematics, the notion of number has been extended over the centuries to include 0,[3] negative numbers,[4] rational numbers such as 1/2 and −2/3, real numbers[5] such as √2 and π, and complex numbers,[6] which extend the real numbers by adding a square root of −1.[4] Calculations with numbers are done with arithmetical operations, the most familiar being addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation. Their study or usage is called arithmetic
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Key Combination
In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as Ctrl+F to search a character string. Such a directive invokes a software or operating system operation (in other words, cause an event) when triggered by the user. The meaning of term "keyboard shortcut" can vary depending on software manufacturer
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Light-emitting Diode
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated.[5] When a suitable current is applied to the leads,[6][7] electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs
LEDs
are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.[8] Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs
LEDs
emitted low-intensity infrared light.[9] Infrared
Infrared
LEDs
LEDs
are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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Vacuum Fluorescent Displays
A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens. A VFD operates on the principle of cathodoluminescence, roughly similar to a cathode ray tube, but operating at much lower voltages. Each tube in a VFD has a phosphor coated anode that is bombarded by electrons emitted from the cathode filament.[1] In fact, each tube in VFD is a triode vacuum tube because it also has a mesh control grid.[2] Unlike liquid crystal displays, a VFD emits a very bright light with high contrast and can support display elements of various colors. Standard illumination figures for VFDs are around 640 cd/m2 with high-brightness VFDs operating at 4,000 cd/m2, and experimental units as high as 35,000 cd/m2 depending on the drive voltage and its timing.[2] The choice of color (which determines the nature of the phosphor) and display brightness significantly affect the lifetime of the tub
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Vulgar Fraction
A fraction (from Latin
Latin
fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction (examples: 1 2 displaystyle tfrac 1 2 and 17/3) consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line (or before a slash), and a non-zero integer denominator, displayed below (or after) that line. Numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of equal parts, and the denominator, which cannot be zero, indicates how many of those parts make up a unit or a whole
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Trigonometry
Trigonometry
Trigonometry
(from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure"[1]) is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles. The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies.[2] The 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the lengths of the sides of a right-angle triangle and the angles between those sides have fixed relationships: that is, if at least the length of one side and the value of one angle is known, then all other angles and lengths can be determined algorithmically
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Command (computing)
In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task. Most commonly a command is either a directive to some kind of command-line interface, such as a shell, or an event in a graphical user interface triggered by the user selecting an option in a menu. Specifically, the term command is used in imperative computer languages. These languages are called this, because statements in these languages are usually written in a manner similar to the imperative mood used in many natural languages. If one views a statement in an imperative language as being like a sentence in a natural language, then a command is generally like a verb in such a language. Many programs allow specially formatted arguments, known as flags or options, which modify the default behaviour of the command, while further arguments describe what the command acts on
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Fractions
A fraction (from Latin
Latin
fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction (examples: 1 2 displaystyle tfrac 1 2 and 17/3) consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line (or before a slash), and a non-zero integer denominator, displayed below (or after) that line. Numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of equal parts, and the denominator, which cannot be zero, indicates how many of those parts make up a unit or a whole
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Approximations
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eAn approximation is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else.Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Mathematics 3 Science 4 Unicode 5 LaTeX Symbols 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology and usage[edit] The word approximation is derived from Latin approximatus, from proximus meaning very near and the prefix ap- (ad- before p) meaning to.[1] Words like approximate, approximately and approximation are used especially in technical or scientific contexts
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