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Calculator
An ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR is a small, portable electronic device used to perform calculations , ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics . The first solid state electronic calculator was created in the 1960s, building on the extensive history of tools such as the abacus (developed around 2000 BC), and the mechanical calculator (developed in the 17th century AD). It was developed in parallel with the analog computers of the day. The pocket sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the first microprocessor , the Intel 4004 , developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom . They later became used commonly within the petroleum industry (oil and gas). Modern electronic calculators vary: from cheap, give-away, credit-card-sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers. They became popular in the mid-1970s (as integrated circuits made their size and cost small)
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Ancient UNIX
ANCIENT UNIX is a term coined by Santa Cruz Operation , to describe early releases of the Unix
Unix
code base released prior to Unix
Unix
System III , particularly the Research
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Computer Program
A COMPUTER PROGRAM is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer . A computer requires programs to function and typically executes the program's instructions in a central processing unit . A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language . From the program in its human-readable form of source code , a compiler can derive machine code —a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter . A part of a computer program that performs a well-defined task is known as an algorithm . A collection of computer programs, libraries , and related data are referred to as software . Computer
Computer
programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software or system software
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Key Combination
In computing , a KEYBOARD SHORTCUT is a series of one or several keys , such as CTRL+F to search a character string. Such a directive invokes a software or operating system operation (in other words, cause an event ) when triggered by the user . The meaning of term "keyboard shortcut" can vary depending on software manufacturer. For instance, Microsoft differentiates keyboard shortcuts from HOTKEYS ("mnemonics" on Windows) whereby the former consists of a specific key combination used to trigger an action, and the latter represents a designated letter in a menu command or toolbar button that when pressed together with the Alt key, activates such command—whereas a "hotkey" on Windows is a system wide shortcut that is always available in all contexts as long as the program responsible for it is running and not suspended
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers
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School
A SCHOOL is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers . Most countries have systems of formal education , which is commonly compulsory . In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university . In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5). University , vocational school , college or seminary may be available after secondary school
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ISO/IEC 7810
ISO/IEC 7810
ISO/IEC 7810
Identification cards — Physical characteristics is an international standard that defines the physical characteristics for identification cards . The characteristics specified include: * Physical dimensions * Resistance to bending, flame, chemicals, temperature and humidity * ToxicityThe standard includes test methods for resistance to heat. CONTENTS* 1 Card sizes * 1.1 ID-1 * 1.2 ID-2 * 1.3 ID-3 * 1.4 ID-000 * 1.5 ID-000 size card as part of ID-1 size card * 2 Card characteristics * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CARD SIZESThe standard defines four card sizes: ID-1, ID-2, ID-3 and ID-000. FORMAT DIMENSIONS USAGE ID-1 85.60 × 53.98 mm Most banking cards and ID cards ID-2 105 × 74 mm French and other ID cards; Visas ID-3 125 × 88 mm Passports ID-000 25 × 15 mm SIM cardsAll card sizes have a thickness of 0.76 mm (1/32 in)
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Integrated Circuit
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT or MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (also referred to as an IC, a CHIP, or a MICROCHIP) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon . The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components . The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics . Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs
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Number
A NUMBER is a mathematical object used to count , measure , and label . The original examples are the natural numbers 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and so forth. A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral . In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers ), for ordering (as with serial numbers ), and for codes (as with ISBNs ). In common usage, number may refer to a symbol, a word , or a mathematical abstraction . In mathematics , the notion of number has been extended over the centuries to include 0 , negative numbers , rational numbers such as 1/2 and −2/3, real numbers such as √2 and π , and complex numbers , which extend the real numbers by adding a square root of −1 . Calculations with numbers are done with arithmetical operations , the most familiar being addition , subtraction , multiplication , division , and exponentiation . Their study or usage is called arithmetic
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Numerical Digit
A DIGIT is a numeric symbol (such as "2" or "5") used in combinations (such as "25") to represent numbers (such as the number 25) in positional numeral systems . The name "digit" comes from the fact that the 10 digits ( Latin
Latin
digiti meaning fingers) of the hands correspond to the 10 symbols of the common base 10 numeral system , i.e. the decimal (ancient Latin
Latin
adjective decem meaning ten) digits. In a given numeral system, if the base is an integer, the number of digits required will always be equal to the absolute value of the base. For example, the decimal system (base 10) has ten digits (0 through to 9), whereas binary (base 2) has two digits (0 and 1)
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Symbolic Computation
In computational mathematics , COMPUTER ALGEBRA, also called SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION or ALGEBRAIC COMPUTATION, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects . Although, properly speaking, computer algebra should be a subfield of scientific computing , they are generally considered as distinct fields because scientific computing is usually based on numerical computation with approximate floating point numbers , while symbolic computation emphasizes exact computation with expressions containing variables that have no given value and are manipulated as symbols, hence the name symbolic computation
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Keyboard (computing)
In computing , a COMPUTER KEYBOARD is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch . Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape , interaction via teleprinter -style keyboards became the main input device for computers . A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys (buttons) and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol . However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters , numbers or signs (characters ), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. Despite the development of alternative input devices, such as the mouse , touchscreen , pen devices , character recognition and voice recognition , the keyboard remains the most commonly used device for direct (human) input of alphanumeric data into computers
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Statistics
STATISTICS is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data . In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal." Statistics
Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments . When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples . Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole
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Trigonometry
TRIGONOMETRY (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure" ) is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles . The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies . The 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the lengths of the sides of a right-angle triangle and the angles between those sides have fixed relationships: that is, if at least the length of one side and the value of one angle is known, then all other angles and lengths can be determined algorithmically
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Market (economics)
A MARKET is one of the many varieties of systems , institutions , procedures , social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter , most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be evaluated and priced . A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership ) of services and goods
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Buttons
In modern clothing and fashion design , a BUTTON is a small fastener , now most commonly made of plastic , but also frequently made of metal, wood or seashell , which secures two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology , a button can be a significant artifact . In the applied arts and in craft , a button can be an example of folk art , studio craft , or even a miniature work of art . Buttons are most often attached to articles of clothing but can also be used on containers such as wallets and bags. However, buttons may be sewn onto garments and similar items exclusively for purposes of ornamentation . Buttons serving as fasteners work by slipping through a fabric or thread loop, or by sliding through a buttonhole . Other types of fastenings include zippers , Velcro
Velcro
and magnets
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