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Caesalpinia Spinosa
Tara spinosa, commonly known as tara (Quechua),[1] is a small leguminous tree or thorny shrub native to Peru.[2] T. spinosa is cultivated as a source of tannins based on a galloylated quinic acid structure.[3] This chemical structure has been confirmed also by LC-MS.[4] It is also grown as an ornamental plant because of its large colorful flowers and pods.Contents1 Names and taxonomy 2 Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Uses 5 References 6 External linksNames and taxonomy[edit] Common names: Spiny holdback; tara, taya, algarroba tanino (Peru). T. spinosa is in the Fabaceae
Fabaceae
family, the Caesalpinioideae subfamily, and Caesalpinieae tribe.[5] Description[edit] T. spinosa typically grows 2–5 m tall; its bark is dark gray with scattered prickles and hairy twigs
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Guar
Cyamopsis
Cyamopsis
psoralioides L.The Guar
Guar
or cluster bean, with the botanical name Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, is an annual legume and the source of guar gum. It is also known as Gavar, Guwar, or Guvar bean. The origin of Cyamopsis
Cyamopsis
tetragonoloba is unknown, since it has never been found in the wild.[1] It is assumed to have developed from the African species Cyamopsis
Cyamopsis
senegalensis
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Legume
A legume (/ˈlɛɡjuːm/ or /ˌləˈɡjuːm/) is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae
Fabaceae
(or Leguminosae). Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their grain seed called pulse, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, chickpeas, lentils, lupin bean, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts and tamarind. Fabaceae
Fabaceae
is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas
Americas
and Africa.[1] A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides
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Lomas
Lomas
Lomas
(Spanish for "hills"), also called fog oases and mist oases, are areas of fog-watered vegetation in the coastal desert of Peru
Peru
and northern Chile. About 100 lomas near the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
are identified between 5°S and 30°S latitude, a north-south distance of about 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi). Lomas
Lomas
range in size from a small vegetated area to more than 40,000 hectares (99,000 acres) and their flora includes many endemic species. Apart from river valleys and the lomas the coastal desert is almost without vegetation. Scholars have described individual lomas as "an island of vegetation in a virtual ocean of desert."[1] Lomas de Lachay
Lomas de Lachay
is a protected area north of Lima.In a nearly rainless desert, the lomas owe their existence to the moist dense fog and mist which rolls in from the Pacific
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Anti-fouling Paint
Anti-fouling paint
Anti-fouling paint
- a category of commercially available highly toxic underwater hull paints (also known as bottom paints) - is a specialized category of coatings applied as the outer (outboard) layer to the hull of a ship or boat, to slow the growth and/or facilitate detachment of subaquatic organisms that attach to the hull and can affect a vessel's performance and durability (see also biofouling). Anti-fouling paints are often applied as one component of multi-layer coating systems [1] which may have other functions in addition to their toxic ant
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Gallic Acid
Gallic acid
Gallic acid
(also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants.[citation needed] The chemical formula of gallic acid is C6H2(OH)3COOH. It is found both free and as part of hydrolyzable tannins
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
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Mordant
Mordant red 19
Mordant red 19
is a typical mordant dye. Like many mordant dyes, it features the azo group (RN=NR) and various sites for chelating to metal cations.A French Indienne, a printed or painted textile in the manner of Indian productions, which used mordants to fix the dyesA mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).[1] It may be used for dyeing fabrics or for intensifying stains in cell or tissue preparations. As applied to textiles, mordants are mainly of historical interest because the use of mordant dyes was largely displaced by directs.[2] The term mordant comes from the Latin mordere, "to bite". In the past, it was thought that a mordant helped the dye bite onto the fiber so that it would hold fast during washing
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Endosperm
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production
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Galactomannan
Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically, a (1-4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranose backbone with branchpoints from their 6-positions linked to alpha-D-galactose, i.e. 1-6-linked alpha-D-galactopyranose). In order of increasing number of mannose-to-galactose ratio:[1]fenugreek gum, mannose:galactose ~1:1 guar gum, mannose:galactose ~2:1 tara gum, mannose:galactose ~3:1 locust bean gum or carob gum, mannose:galactose ~4:1 cassia gum, mannose:galactose ~5:1Galactomannans are often used in food products to increase the viscosity of the water phase. Guar gum
Guar gum
has been used to add viscosity to artificial tears, but is not as stable as carboxymethylcellulose.[2] Food use[edit] Galactomannans are used in foods as stabilisers. Guar and locust bean gum (LBG) are commonly used in ice cream to improve texture and reduce ice cream meltdown
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Locust Bean
Ceratonia
Ceratonia
siliqua, commonly known as the carob tree or carob bush, from Arabic خَرُّوبٌ (kharrūb) and Hebrew חרוב (haruv), St John's-bread,[1] or locust bean[2] (not to be confused with the African locust bean), or simply locust-tree,[3] is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The ripe, dried pod is often ground to carob powder, which is used to replace cocoa powder
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Stamens
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]Contents1 Morphology and terminology 2 Etymology 3 Variation in morphology 4 Pollen
Pollen
production 5 Sexual reproduction in plants 6 Descriptive terms 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMorphology and terminology[edit] A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are collectively called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Thickening Agent
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties. Edible thickeners are commonly used to thicken sauces, soups, and puddings without altering their taste; thickeners are also used in paints, inks, explosives, and cosmetics. Thickeners may also improve the suspension of other ingredients or emulsions which increases the stability of the product. Thickening agents are often regulated as food additives and as cosmetics and personal hygiene product ingredients. Some thickening agents are gelling agents (gellants), forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure. Others act as mechanical thixotropic additives with discrete particles adhering or interlocking to resist strain. Thickening agents can also be used when a medical condition such as dysphagia causes difficulty in swallowing
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Ice Cream
Ice
Ice
cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice[1]) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes. Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles
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