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Cable Protection System
A cable protection system, or CPS, is a system used for the protection of subsea power cables against various factors that negatively impact on the cable lifetime, normally used when entering an offshore structure. When a subsea power cable is laid, there is an area where the cable can be subjected to increased dynamic forces, which the cable is not necessarily designed to survive over the lifetime of the installation. Cable protection systems are used to allow the specification, and thus cost, of a subsea power cable to be reduced, by removing the need to include additional armoring of the cable. The resulting cables can be produced more cheaply, whilst still prividing the 20 years + lifetime required. Offshore windfarm
Offshore windfarm
developers in particular have adopted the use of Cable protection systems due to the dynamic area where the cable comes from the seabed and enters the monopile/J-tube
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Submarine Power Cable
A submarine power cable is a major transmission cable for carrying electric power below the surface of the water.[1] These are called "submarine" because they usually carry electric power beneath salt water (arms of the ocean, seas, straits, etc.) but it is also possible to use submarine power cables beneath fresh water (large lakes and rivers). Examples of the latter exist that connect the mainland with large islands in the St. Lawrence River.Contents1 Design technologies1.1 Conductor 1.2 Insulation 1.3 Armoring 1.4 AC or DC2 Operational submarine power cables2.1 Alternating current cables 2.2 Direct current cables3 Submarine power cables under construction 4 Proposed submarine power cables 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDesign technologies[edit] The purpose of submarine power cables is the transport of electric current at high voltage
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Ductile Iron
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron[1] and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis.[2] While most varieties of cast iron are weak in tension and brittle, ductile iron has much more impact and fatigue resistance, due to its nodular graphite inclusions. On October 25, 1949, Keith Dwight Millis, Albert Paul Gagnebin and Norman Boden Pilling received US patent 2,485,760 on a Cast Ferrous Alloy for ductile iron production via magnesium treatment.[3] Augustus F. Meehan was awarded a patent in January 1931 for inoculating iron with calcium silicide to produce ductile iron subsequently licensed as Meehanite, still produced in 2017.Contents1 Metallurgy 2 Composition 3 Applications 4 See also 5 References5.1 Bibliography6 External linksMetallurgy[edit] Ductile iron
Ductile iron
microstructure at 100×
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Offshore Construction
Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources. It is also called maritime engineering. Construction and pre-commissioning is typically performed as much as possible onshore. To optimize the costs and risks of installing large offshore platforms, different construction strategies have been developed. One strategy is to fully construct the offshore facility onshore, and tow the installation to site floating on its own buoyancy. Bottom founded structure are lowered to the seabed by de-ballasting (see for instance Condeep or Cranefree), whilst floating structures are held in position with substantial mooring systems. The size of offshore lifts can be reduced by making the construction modular, with each module being constructed onshore and then lifted using a crane vessel into place onto the platform
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Renewables
Renewable energy
Renewable energy
is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3] Based on REN21's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass
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Nuisance Call
Nuisance calls encompass any type of unwanted, unsolicited, telephone call. Common types of nuisance calls include prank calls, telemarketing calls, and silent calls. Obscene phone calls and other threatening calls are criminal acts in most jurisdictions, particularly when hate crime is involved.[1] Unsolicited calls may also be used to initiate telephone frauds. Fax machines may also receive junk faxes via unsolicited calls.[2] Caller ID
Caller ID
provides some protection against unwanted calls, but can still be turned off by the calling party
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Salinity
Salinity
Salinity
is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in g   salt k g   sea   water displaystyle frac g textrm salt kg textrm sea textrm water (note that this is technically dimensionless)
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Corrosion
Corrosion
Corrosion
is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and stopping corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfur. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide(s) or salt(s) of the original metal, and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion
Corrosion
can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common
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Fatigue (material)
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads. It is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be much less than the strength of the material typically quoted as the ultimate tensile stress limit, or the yield stress limit. Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form at the stress concentrators such as the surface, persistent slip bands (PSBs), interfaces of constituents in the case of composites, and grain interfaces in the case of metals.[1] Eventually a crack will reach a critical size, the crack will propagate suddenly, and the structure will fracture
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Buoyancy
In physics, buoyancy (/ˈbɔɪənsi, -əntsi, ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/)[1][2] or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Metallurgy
Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is used to separate metals from their ore . Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement
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Forging
Forging
Forging
is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging
Forging
is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to hundreds of metric tons.[1][2] Forging
Forging
has been done by smiths for millennia; the traditional products were kitchenware, hardware, hand tools, edged weapons, cymbals, and jewellery
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Cast Metal
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold that contains a hollow cavity (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape. The metal and mold are then cooled, and the metal part (the casting) is extracted. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and have been widely used for sculpture (especially in bronze), jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting (which may be further divided into centrifugal casting and vacuum assist direct pour casting), plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting
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Bridge Scour
Bridge scour is the removal of sediment such as sand and gravel from around bridge abutments or piers. Scour, caused by swiftly moving water, can scoop out scour holes, compromising the integrity of a structure.[1] In the United States, bridge scour is one of the three main causes of bridge failure (the others being collision and overloading)
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Monopile
A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A pile or piling is a vertical structural element of a deep foundation, driven or drilled deep into the ground at the building site.Deep foundations of The Marina Torch, a skyscraper in DubaiThere are many reasons that a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, such as for a skyscraper. Some of the common reasons are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints like property lines. There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including the pile (which is analogous to a pole), the pier (which is analogous to a column), drilled shafts, and caissons. Piles are generally driven into the ground in situ; other deep foundations are typically put in place using excavation and drilling
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