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Cable Protection System
A CABLE PROTECTION SYSTEM, or CPS, is a system used for the protection of subsea power cables against various factors that negatively impact on the cable lifetime, normally used when entering an offshore structure . When a subsea power cable is laid, there is an area where the cable can be subjected to increased dynamic forces, which the cable is not necessarily designed to survive over the lifetime of the installation. Cable protection systems are used to allow the specification, and thus cost, of a subsea power cable to be reduced, by removing the need to include additional armoring of the cable. The resulting cables can be produced more cheaply, whilst still prividing the 20 years + lifetime required. Offshore windfarm
Offshore windfarm
developers in particular have adopted the use of Cable protection systems due to the dynamic area where the cable comes from the seabed and enters the monopile /J-tube
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Corrosion
CORROSION is a natural process , which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide , hydroxide , or sulfide . It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals ) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and stopping corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfur . Rusting , the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide (s) or salt (s) of the original metal, and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion
Corrosion
can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers , although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common
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Fatigue (material)
In materials science , FATIGUE is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads. It is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be much less than the strength of the material typically quoted as the ultimate tensile stress limit , or the yield stress limit . Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form at the stress concentrators such as the surface, persistent slip bands (PSBs), interfaces of constituents in the case of composites, and grain interfaces in the case of metals. Eventually a crack will reach a critical size, the crack will propagate suddenly, and the structure will fracture
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Ductile Iron
DUCTILE IRON, also known as DUCTILE CAST IRON, NODULAR CAST IRON, SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE IRON, SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST IRON and SG IRON, is a type of graphite -rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis . While most varieties of cast iron are brittle , ductile iron has much more impact and fatigue resistance, due to its nodular graphite inclusions. On October 25, 1949, Keith Dwight Millis, Albert Paul Gagnebin and Norman Boden Pilling received US patent 2,485,760 on a Cast Ferrous Alloy for ductile iron production via magnesium treatment. CONTENTS * 1 Metallurgy * 2 Composition * 3 Applications * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Bibliography * 6 External links METALLURGY Ductile iron microstructure at 100×. Note carbon islanding effect around nodules. Ductile iron is not a single material but part of a group of materials which can be produced with a wide range of properties through control of their microstructure
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Polymer
A POLYMER (/ˈpɒlᵻmər/ ; Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule , or macromolecule , composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers . Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness , viscoelasticity , and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals
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Salinity
SALINITY is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity ). This is usually measured in g salt k g sea water {displaystyle {frac {g {textrm {salt}}}{kg {textrm {sea}} {textrm {water}}}}} (note that this is technically dimensionless). Salinity
Salinity
is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure , governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale
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Submarine Power Cable
A SUBMARINE POWER CABLE is a major transmission cable for carrying electric power below the surface of the water. These are called "submarine" because they usually carry electric power beneath salt water (arms of the ocean , seas , straits , etc.) but it is also possible to use submarine power cables beneath fresh water (large lakes and rivers ). Examples of the latter exist that connect the mainland with large islands in the St. Lawrence River
River
. CONTENTS * 1 Design technologies * 2 Selection between AC and DC * 3 Operational submarine power cables * 3.1 Alternating current
Alternating current
cables * 3.2 Direct current
Direct current
cables * 4 Proposed submarine power cables * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DESIGN TECHNOLOGIESThe purpose of submarine power cables is the transport of electric current at high voltage
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Renewables
RENEWABLE ENERGY is energy that is collected from renewable resources , which are naturally replenished on a human timescale , such as sunlight , wind , rain , tides , waves , and geothermal heat . Renewable energy
Renewable energy
often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation , air and water heating /cooling , transportation , and rural (off-grid) energy services. Based on REN21 's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively
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Nuisance Call
NUISANCE CALLS encompass any type of unwanted, unsolicited, telephone call . Common types of nuisance calls include prank calls , telemarketing calls, and silent calls . Obscene phone calls and other threatening calls are criminal acts in most jurisdictions, particularly when hate crime is involved. Unsolicited calls may also be used to initiate telephone frauds . Fax machines may also receive junk faxes via unsolicited calls. Caller ID provides some protection against unwanted calls, but can still be turned off by the calling party. Even where end-user Caller ID is not available, calls are still logged, both in billing records at the originating telco and via automatic number identification , so the perpetrator's phone number can still be discovered in many cases. However, these do not provide complete protection: harassers can use payphones and, in some cases, caller ID (but not necessarily automatic number identification itself) can be spoofed or blocked
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Metallurgy
METALLURGY is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements , their inter-metallic compounds , and their mixtures, which are called alloys . Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is distinguished from the craft of metalworking , although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement
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Buoyancy
In science , BUOYANCY ( /ˈbɔɪ.ənsi, -əntsi/ or /ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/ ; ) or UPTHRUST, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes\' principle ) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Seabed
The SEABED (also known as the SEAFLOOR, SEA FLOOR, or OCEAN FLOOR) is the bottom of the ocean . CONTENTS* 1 Seabed
Seabed
structure * 1.1 Technical terms * 2 Benthos * 3 Seabed
Seabed
features * 4 History of exploration * 5 Resources * 6 In art and culture * 7 Further reading * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links SEABED STRUCTURE See also: Seafloor spreading
Seafloor spreading
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The major oceanic divisions Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources
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Offshore Construction
OFFSHORE CONSTRUCTION is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources. It is also called MARITIME ENGINEERING. Construction
Construction
and pre-commissioning is typically performed as much as possible onshore. To optimize the costs and risks of installing large offshore platforms, different construction strategies have been developed. One strategy is to fully construct the offshore facility onshore, and tow the installation to site floating on its own buoyancy. Bottom founded structure are lowered to the seabed by de-ballasting (see for instance Condeep or Cranefree ), whilst floating structures are held in position with substantial mooring systems
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Ball And Socket Joint
The BALL AND SOCKET JOINT (or SPHEROIDAL JOINT) is a type of synovial joint in which the ball-shaped surface of one rounded bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone. The distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center. It enables the bone to move in many places (nearly all directions). An ENARTHROSIS is a special kind of spheroidal joint in which the socket covers the sphere beyond its equator. EXAMPLESExamples of this form of articulation are found in the hip , where the rounded head of the femur (ball) rests in the cup-like acetabulum (socket) of the pelvis , and in the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder , where the rounded head of the humerus (ball) rests in the cup-like glenoid fossa (socket) of the shoulder blade . It should be noted that the shoulder includes a sternoclavicular articulation joint
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Monopile
A DEEP FOUNDATION is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A PILE or PILING is a vertical structural element of a deep foundation, driven or drilled deep into the ground at the building site
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Offshore Windfarm
OFFSHORE WIND POWER or OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY is the use of wind farms constructed offshore, usually on the continental shelf , to harvest wind energy to generate electricity. Higher wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher, and NIMBY opposition to construction is usually much weaker. The cost of offshore wind power has historically been higher than that of onshore wind generation, but in 2016 had decreased to €54.5/MWh the 700 MW Borssele 3"> Progression of expected wind turbine evolution to deeper water. Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind
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