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Cable TV
CABLE TELEVISION is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables , or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables . This contrasts with broadcast television , in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio
FM radio
programming, high-speed Internet
Internet
, telephone services , and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" (sometimes known as a "cable network") is a television network available via cable television
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Bandwidth (signal Processing)
BANDWIDTH is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous set of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz , and may sometimes refer to passband bandwidth, sometimes to baseband bandwidth, depending on context. PASSBAND BANDWIDTH is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter , a communication channel , or a signal spectrum . In the case of a low-pass filter or baseband signal , the bandwidth is equal to its upper cutoff frequency. Bandwidth in hertz is a central concept in many fields, including electronics , information theory , digital communications , radio communications , signal processing , and spectroscopy and is one of the determinants of the capacity of a given communication channel. A key characteristic of bandwidth is that any band of a given width can carry the same amount of information , regardless of where that band is located in the frequency spectrum
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Blanking Interval
HORIZONTAL BLANKING INTERVAL refers to a part of the process of displaying images on a computer monitor or television screen via raster scanning . CRT screens display images by moving beams of electrons very quickly across the screen. Once the beam of the monitor has reached the edge of the screen, the beam is switched off, and the deflection circuit voltages (or currents) are returned to the values they had for the other edge of the screen; this would have the effect of retracing the screen in the opposite direction, so the beam is turned off during this time. This part of the line display process is the Horizontal Blank. In detail, the Horizontal blanking interval consists of: * front porch – blank while still moving right, past the end of the scanline, * sync pulse – blank while rapidly moving left; in terms of amplitude, "blacker than black". * back porch – blank while moving right again, before the start of the next scanline
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Z Channel
The Z CHANNEL was one of the first pay television stations in the United States
United States
. Launched in 1974 from Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
, this station was known for its devotion to the art of cinema due to the eclectic choice of films by the programming chief, Jerry Harvey . It also popularized the use of letterboxing on television, as well as showing 'director\'s cut ' versions of films (which is a term popularized after Z Channel's showing of Heaven\'s Gate ). Z Channel's devotion to cinema and choice of rare and important films had an important influence on such directors as Robert Altman
Robert Altman
, Quentin Tarantino , and Jim Jarmusch
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Linjesender
A LINJESENDER (English: "LINE TRANSMITTER") was a low power longwave transmitter system used for broadcasting in Norway . It consisted of a power line communication system, which fed the radio programme on a frequency in the longwave broadcasting range into domestic powerlines. The last linjesender in Norway was closed in 1987 although the Swiss counterpart survived another ten years. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Similar systems * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links FEATURESThe typical powers used by linjesenders were between 250 watts and 2 kW. Most systems used frequencies in the longwave band or in between the LW and MW band although some used medium wave or frequencies below the standard LW band which required special receivers
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Eurosport
EUROSPORT is a pan-European television sports network, owned and operated by Discovery Communications
Discovery Communications
. Discovery took a 20% minority interest share in December 2012, and became the majority shareholder in the Eurosport
Eurosport
venture with TF1 in January 2014, taking a 51% share of the company. On 22 July 2015 Discovery agreed to acquire TF1's remaining 49% stake in the venture. Eurosport
Eurosport
owns a wide range of rights across many sports but generally does not bid for premium priced rights such as those to major football leagues. However, in 2015 it was awarded rights to broadcast the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
from 2018 for most of Europe and 2022 for the UK and France
France
in a deal worth €1.3 billion (£ 922 million)
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MTV
MTV
MTV
(originally an initialism of MUSIC TELEVISION) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks (a division of Viacom
Viacom
) and headquartered in New York City
New York City
. Launched on August 1, 1981, the channel originally aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys " (VJs). In its early years, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is primarily towards teenagers, particularly high school and college students. MTV
MTV
has toned down its music video programming significantly in recent years, and its programming now consists mainly of original reality , comedy and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods
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Service Drop
In electric power distribution , a SERVICE DROP is an overhead electrical line running from a utility pole , to a customer's building or other premises. It is the point where electric utilities provide power to their customers. The customer connection to an underground distribution system is usually called a "service lateral". Conductors of a service drop or lateral are usually owned and maintained by the utility company, but some industrial drops are installed and owned by the customer. At the customer's premises, the wires usually enter the building through a weatherhead that protects against entry of rain and snow, and drop down though conduit to an electric meter which measures and records the power used for billing purposes, then enters the main service panel
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Popular Science
POPULAR SCIENCE (also known as POPSCI) is an American bi-monthly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 (for General Excellence) and 2004 (for Best Magazine Section). With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science
Popular Science
has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Recent history * 2.1 Radio * 2.2 Tablet * 2.3 Mobile * 2.4 Popular Science+ * 2.5 Popular Science Predictions Exchange * 2.6 Television-Future Of..
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Popular Electronics
POPULAR ELECTRONICS was an American magazine started by Ziff-Davis Publishing Company in October 1954 for electronics hobbyists and experimenters. It soon became the "World's Largest-Selling Electronics Magazine". In April 1957 Ziff-Davis reported an average net paid circulation of 240,151 copies. Popular Electronics was published until October 1982 when, in November 1982, Ziff-Davis launched a successor magazine, COMPUTERS & ELECTRONICS. During its last year of publication by Ziff-Davis, Popular Electronics reported an average monthly circulation of 409,344 copies. The title was sold to Gernsback Publications, and their Hands-On Electronics magazine was renamed to Popular Electronics in February 1989, and published until December 1999. A cover story on Popular Electronics could launch a new product or company
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Miniseries
A MINISERIES (or MINI-SERIES, also known as a SERIAL in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 North America * 2 Limited series * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYA miniseries is distinguished from an ongoing television series, which do not usually have a predetermined number of episodes and may continue for several years. Before the term was coined in the USA in the early 1970s, the ongoing episodic form was always called a "serial ", just as a novel appearing in episodes in successive editions of magazines or newspapers is called a serial. In Britain, miniseries are often still referred to as serials. Several commentators have offered more precise definitions of the term
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Specialty Channel
A SPECIALTY CHANNEL can be a commercial broadcasting or non-commercial television channel which consists of television programming focused on a single genre , subject or targeted television market at a specific demographic . The number of specialty channels has greatly increased during the 1990s and 2000s while the previously common model of countries having just a few (national) TV stations addressing all interest groups and demographics became increasingly outmoded, as it already had been for some time in several countries. About 65% of today's satellite channels are specialty channels
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Narrowcasting
NARROWCASTING has traditionally been understood as the dissemination of information (usually via Internet, radio, newspaper, or television) to a narrow audience; not to the broader public at-large. Also called niche marketing or target marketing , narrowcasting involves aiming media messages at specific segments of the public defined by values, preferences, demographic attributes, and/or subscription. Narrowcasting is based on the postmodern idea that mass audiences do not exist. While the first uses of the term appeared within the context of subscription radio programs in the late 1940s, the term first entered the common lexicon due to computer scientist and public broadcasting advocate J. C. R. Licklider
J. C. R. Licklider
, who in a 1967 report envisioned "a multiplicity of television networks aimed at serving the needs of smaller, specialized audiences
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Television Film
A TELEVISION FILM (also known as a TELEVISION MOVIE, TELEFILM, TELEMOVIE, MADE-FOR-TELEVISION FILM, DIRECT-TO-TV FILM, MOVIE OF THE WEEK, FEATURE-LENGTH DRAMA, SINGLE DRAMA or ORIGINAL MOVIE) is a feature-length motion picture that is produced for, and originally distributed by or to, a television network , in contrast to theatrical films, which are made explicitly for initial showing in movie theaters
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Media Market
A MEDIA MARKET, BROADCAST MARKET, MEDIA REGION, DESIGNATED MARKET AREA (DMA), TELEVISION MARKET AREA, or simply MARKET is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet
Internet
content. They can coincide or overlap with one or more metropolitan areas , though rural regions with few significant population centers can also be designated as markets. Conversely, very large metropolitan areas can sometimes be subdivided into multiple segments. Market regions may overlap, meaning that people residing on the edge of one media market may be able to receive content from other nearby markets. They are widely used in audience measurements , which are compiled in the United States
United States
by Nielsen Media Research
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Multichannel Television Sound
MULTICHANNEL TELEVISION SOUND, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television
Television
Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC
NTSC
-format audio carrier . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Adopted in * 3 How MTS works * 4 MTS real world performance * 5 MTS licensing * 6 How MTS audio channels are used * 7 MTS and the DTV transition in the United States
United States
* 8 See also * 9 References HISTORYMultichannel Television
Television
Sound
Sound
was adopted by the Federal Communications Commission as the U.S. standard for stereo television transmission in 1984
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