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Cab Signalling
Cab signalling
Cab signalling
is a railway safety system that communicates track status and condition information to the cab, crew compartment or driver's compartment of a locomotive, railcar or multiple unit. The information is continually updated giving an easy to read display to the train driver or engine driver. The simplest systems display the trackside signal, while more sophisticated systems also display allowable speed, location of nearby trains, and dynamic information about the track ahead
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Chicago Transit Authority
Bus: 872,090, Rail: 787,430 Total: 1.66 million (June 2015)Fuel type Diesel, Diesel-electric hybridOperator SelfChief executive Dorval R. Carter, Jr.[1]Website http://www.transitchicago.comThe Chicago
Chicago
Transit Authority (CTA; stylized as cta), is the operator of mass transit in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
and some of its surrounding suburbs, including the trains of the Chicago
Chicago
"L" and CTA bus service. The CTA is an Illinois
Illinois
independent governmental agency[2] that started operations on October 1, 1947 upon the purchase and combination of the transportation assets of the Chicago
Chicago
Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago
Chicago
Surface Lines streetcar system
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General Railway Signal
General Railway Signal
General Railway Signal
Company (GRS) was a supplier of railway signaling equipment, systems and services in the Rochester, New York area. The company was established in 1904 and became part of Alstom Transport in 1998. GRS was a member of the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1928 to 1930.[1]Contents1 History 2 Products 3 Clients 4 Major accomplishments 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] GRS was founded in 1904 with the merger of three companies (Pneumatic Signal Company of Rochester, New York, Taylor Signal Co. of Buffalo, New York and Standard Railroad Signal Company of Arlington, New Jersey). In 1923 GRS acquired the Federal Signal Company of Albany, New York.[2]Company's former logo. General Railway Signal
General Railway Signal
was one of the 30 stocks when the Dow Jones Industrial Average[3] was expanded from a 20-stock average on October 1, 1928
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Chicago 'L'
The Chicago
Chicago
"L" (short for "elevated")[4] is the rapid transit system serving the city of Chicago
Chicago
and some of its surrounding suburbs in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is operated by the Chicago
Chicago
Transit Authority (CTA)
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Electromagnets
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of wire wound into a coil. A current through the wire creates a magnetic field which is concentrated in the hole in the center of the coil. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron; the magnetic core concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet. The main advantage of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet is that the magnetic field can be quickly changed by controlling the amount of electric current in the winding
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Automatic Train Operation
Automatic train operation
Automatic train operation
(ATO) is an operational safety enhancement device used to help automate operations of trains. Mainly, it is used on automated guideway transits and rapid transit systems which are easier to ensure safety of humans. Most systems elect to maintain a driver (train operator) to mitigate risks associated with failures or emergencies. Many modern systems are linked with Automatic Train
Train
Control (ATC) and in many cases Automatic Train
Train
Protection (ATP) where normal signaller operations such as route setting and train regulation are carried out by the system. The ATO and ATC/ATP systems will work together to maintain a train within a defined tolerance of its timetable
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Fail Safe
A fail-safe in engineering is a design feature or practice that in the event of a specific type of failure, inherently responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm to other equipment, the environment or to people. Unlike inherent safety to a particular hazard, a system being "fail-safe" does not mean that failure is impossible or improbable, but rather that the system's design prevents or mitigates unsafe consequences of the system's failure. That is, if and when a "fail-safe" system "fails", it is "safe" or at least no less safe than when it was operating correctly.[1][2] Since many types of failure are possible, failure mode and effects analysis is used to examine failure situations and recommend safety design and procedures. Some systems can never be made fail safe, as continuous availability is needed. Redundancy, fault tolerance, or recovery procedures are used for these situations (e.g. multiple independent controlled and fuel fed engines)
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Inductive Sensor
Contents1 Principle 2 Applications2.1 Search Coil Magnetometer 2.2 Inductive Proximity Sensor
Sensor
(Proxy Switch)3 See also 4 ReferencesPrinciple[edit] The inductive sensor is based on Faraday's law of induction
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Induction Loop
An induction or inductive loop is an electromagnetic communication or detection system which uses a moving magnet or an alternating current to induce an electric current in a nearby wire. Induction loops are used for transmission and reception of communication signals, or for detection of metal objects in metal detectors or vehicle presence indicators. A common modern use for induction loops is to provide hearing assistance to hearing-aid users.Contents1 Applications1.1 Audio 1.2 Vehicle detection 1.3 Vehicle classification 1.4 Metal detector2 See also 3 External links 4 ReferencesApplications[edit] Audio[edit] An audio induction loop provides assistance to hearing aid users. The system has one or more loops in the area in which a hearing aid user would be present. Many different configurations can be used depending on the application.[1] Such an induction loop receiver is classically a very small iron-cored inductor (telecoil)
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Chicago And North Western Railroad
The Chicago and North Western Transportation Company
Chicago and North Western Transportation Company
(reporting mark CNW) was a Class I railroad
Class I railroad
in the Midwestern United States. It was also known as the North Western. The railroad operated more than 5,000 miles (8,000 km) of track as of the turn of the 20th century, and over 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of track in seven states before retrenchment in the late 1970s. Until 1972, when the employees purchased the company, it was named the Chicago and North Western Railway (or Chicago and North Western Railway Company). The C&NW became one of the longest railroads in the United States as a result of mergers with other railroads, such as the Chicago Great Western Railway, Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway
Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway
and others. By 1995, track sales and abandonment had reduced the total mileage to about 5,000
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Shinkansen
The Shinkansen
Shinkansen
(新幹線, lit
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Victoria Line
The Victoria line
Victoria line
is a London Underground
London Underground
line that runs between Brixton in south London and Walthamstow
Walthamstow
Central in the north-east, via the West End. It is coloured light blue on the Tube map
Tube map
and is one of just two lines to run entirely below ground, the other being the Waterloo & City line.[note 1] Constructed in the 1960s, it was the first entirely new Underground line in London for 50 years and was designed to relieve congestion on other lines, particularly the Piccadilly line
Piccadilly line
and the Charing Cross branch of the Northern line. The first section, from Walthamstow Central to Highbury & Islington, opened in September 1968, with an extension to Warren Street following soon afterward. By March 1969 the line reached Victoria station, with the southern portion to Brixton opening in 1971
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Audio Frequency
An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human. The SI unit of audio frequency is the hertz (Hz). It is the property of sound that most determines pitch.[1] The generally accepted standard range of audible frequencies for humans is 20 to 20,000 Hz,[2][3][4] although the range of frequencies individuals hear is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Frequencies below 20 Hz are generally felt rather than heard, assuming the amplitude of the vibration is great enough. Frequencies above 20,000 Hz can sometimes be sensed by young people
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Attenuation
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium. For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates. Hearing protectors
Hearing protectors
help reduce acoustic flux from flowing into the ears. This phenomenon is called acoustic attenuation and is measured in decibels (dBs). In electrical engineering and telecommunications, attenuation affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits, in optical fibers, and in air
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Bay Area Rapid Transit
Bay Area Rapid Transit
Bay Area Rapid Transit
(BART) (/bɑːrt/), is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
in California. The heavy rail elevated and subway system connects San Francisco and Oakland with urban and suburban areas in Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Mateo counties. BART operates six routes on 112 miles (180 km) of track connecting 46 stations, including a 3.2-mile (5.1 km) automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport. A ten-mile spur line in eastern Contra Costa County, scheduled to open in 2018, will utilize diesel multiple-unit trains
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Datagram
A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network. Datagrams are typically structured in header and payload sections. Datagrams provide a connectionless communication service across a packet-switched network. The delivery, arrival time, and order of arrival of datagrams need not be guaranteed by the network.Contents1 History 2 Definition 3 Structure 4 Examples4.1 Internet Protocol5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] The term datagram appeared first within the project CYCLADES, a packet-switched network created in the early 1970s, and was coined by Louis Pouzin[1] by combining the words data and telegram. CYCLADES
CYCLADES
was the first network to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.The inspiration for datagrams had two sources. One was Donald Davies' studies
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