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CSS
CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language . Although most often used to set the visual style of web pages and user interfaces written in HTML
HTML
and X HTML
HTML
, the language can be applied to any XML
XML
document, including plain XML
XML
, SVG and XUL , and is applicable to rendering in speech , or on other media. Along with HTML
HTML
and JavaScript , CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications , and user interfaces for many mobile applications. CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of presentation and content, including aspects such as the layout , colors , and fonts
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International Standard
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS are standards developed by international standards organizations . International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 History * 2.1 Standardization * 2.2 International organizations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PURPOSEInternational standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions
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Language Code
A LANGUAGE CODE is a code that assigns letters or numbers as identifiers or classifiers for languages . These codes may be used to organize library collections or presentations of data, to choose the correct localizations and translations in computing, and as a shorthand designation for longer forms of language-name. CONTENTS * 1 Difficulties of classification * 2 Common schemes * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DIFFICULTIES OF CLASSIFICATION Language
Language
code schemes attempt to classify the complex world of human languages, dialects, and variants. Most schemes make some compromises between being general and being complete enough to support specific dialects. For example, most people in Central America and South America speak Spanish. Spanish spoken in Mexico will be slightly different from Spanish spoken in Peru. Different regions of Mexico will have slightly different dialects and accents of Spanish
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Uniform Type Identifier
A UNIFORM TYPE IDENTIFIER (UTI) is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc. to uniquely identify a given class or type of item. Apple provides built-in UTIs to identify common system objects – document or image file types, folders and application bundles, streaming data, clipping data, movie data – and allows third party developers to add their own UTIs for application-specific or proprietary uses. Support for UTIs was added in the Mac OS X 10.4 operating system, integrated into the Spotlight desktop search technology, which uses UTIs to categorize documents. One of the primary design goals of UTIs was to eliminate the ambiguities and problems associated with inferring a file's content from its MIME type , filename extension , or type or creator code . UTIs use a reverse-DNS naming structure
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Media Type
A MEDIA TYPE (also MIME TYPE and CONTENT TYPE) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet
Internet
. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP
HTTP
and document file formats such as HTML
HTML
, for similar purpose
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Browser Object Model
The BROWSER OBJECT MODEL (BOM) is a browser-specific convention referring to all the objects exposed by the web browser . Unlike the Document Object Model
Document Object Model
, there is no standard for implementation and no strict definition, so browser vendors are free to implement the BOM in any way they wish. That which we see as a window displaying a document, the browser program sees as a hierarchical collection of objects. When the browser parses a document, it creates a collection of objects that define the document and detail how it should be displayed. The object the browser creates is known as the Document object. It is part of a larger collection of objects that the browser makes use of. This collection of browser objects is collectively known as the Browser Object Model, or BOM. The top level of the hierarchy is the window object, which contains the information about the window displaying the document
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Character Encodings In HTML
HTML
HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language) has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4.0 (December 1997) was the first standardized version where international characters were given reasonably complete treatment. When an HTML
HTML
document includes special characters outside the range of seven-bit ASCII
ASCII
two goals are worth considering: the information's integrity , and universal browser display. CONTENTS * 1 Specifying the document\'s character encoding * 2 Character references * 2.1 HTML
HTML
character references * 2.2 XML
XML
character references * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SPECIFYING THE DOCUMENT\'S CHARACTER ENCODINGThere are several ways to specify which character encoding is used in the document
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XHTML Basic
X HTML
HTML
BASIC is an XML
XML
-based structured markup language primarily used for simple (mainly handheld ) user agents , typically mobile devices. X HTML
HTML
Basic is a subset of X HTML
HTML
1.1 , defined using XHTML Modularization including a reduced set of modules for document structure, images, forms, basic tables, and object support. XHTML Basic is suitable for mobile phones , PDAs , pagers , and settop boxes . It will replace WML and C- HTML
HTML
as more compliant user agents are developed. One large advantage X HTML
HTML
Basic has over WML and C- HTML
HTML
is that XHTML Basic pages can be rendered differently in web browsers and on handhelds, without the need for two different versions of the same page. In 2006, the specification was revised to version 1.1
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HTML Scripting
The W3C HTML
HTML
standard includes support for client-side scripting . It defines how locally executable scripts may be used in a web page . A particular client-side application, such as a web browser , may support several script languages. Script code may be executed as the document loads or at a later time. Script code can be written directly in the HTML
HTML
document inside: * SCRIPT elements * Intrinsic event attributesCONTENTS* 1 Script macros * 1.1 The SCRIPT element type * 1.2 Intrinsic event attributes * 1.3 Script macros * 2 References SCRIPT MACROSTHE SCRIPT ELEMENT TYPESCRIPT elements may occur zero or more times within the HEAD and BODY elements. Scripts within script elements are processed as the document loads
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Unicode And HTML
Web pages authored using HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE ( HTML
HTML
) may contain multilingual text represented with the UNICODE UNIVERSAL CHARACTER SET. Key to the relationship between Unicode
Unicode
and HTML
HTML
is the relationship between the "document character set" which defines the set of characters that may be present in a HTML
HTML
document and assigns numbers to them and the "external character encoding" or "charset" used to encode a given document as a sequence of bytes. In RFC 1866 , the initial HTML
HTML
2.0 standard, the document character set was defined as ISO-8859-1. It was extended to ISO 10646 (which is basically equivalent to Unicode) by RFC 2070 . It does not vary between documents of different languages or created on different platforms
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WebGL
WEBGL (WEB GRAPHICS LIBRARY) is a JavaScript
JavaScript
API for rendering 3D graphics within any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins . WebGL
WebGL
is integrated completely into all the web standards of the browser allowing GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing and effects as part of the web page canvas. WebGL
WebGL
elements can be mixed with other HTML
HTML
elements and composited with other parts of the page or page background. WebGL
WebGL
programs consist of control code written in JavaScript
JavaScript
and shader code that is written in OpenGL Shading Language (GLSL), a language similar to C or C++
C++
, and is executed on a computer's graphics processing unit (GPU). WebGL
WebGL
is designed and maintained by the non-profit Khronos Group
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Html5 Audio
HTML5
HTML5
AUDIO is a subject of the HTML5
HTML5
specification, incorporating audio input, playback, and synthesis , as well as speech to text , in the browser. CONTENTS* 1 element * 1.1 Supporting browsers * 2 Supported audio coding formats * 3 Web Audio API and MediaStream Processing API * 3.1 Supporting browsers * 4 Web Speech API * 4.1 Supporting browsers * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ELEMENTThe element represents a sound, or an audio stream. It is commonly used to play back a single audio file within a web page, showing a GUI widget with play/pause/volume controls
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WHATWG
The WEB HYPERTEXT APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY WORKING GROUP (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML
HTML
and related technologies. The WHATWG
WHATWG
was founded by individuals from Apple , the Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software in 2004. Since then, the editor of the WHATWG
WHATWG
specifications, Ian Hickson , has moved to Google . Chris Wilson of Microsoft
Microsoft
was invited but did not join, citing the lack of a patent policy to ensure all specifications can be implemented on a royalty-free basis. The WHATWG
WHATWG
has a small, invitation-only oversight committee called "Members", which has the power to impeach the editor of the specifications. Anyone can participate as a Contributor by joining the WHATWG
WHATWG
mailing list
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Web Storage
WEB STORAGE, sometimes known as DOM STORAGE (Document Object Model storage), provides web application software methods and protocols used for storing data in a web browser . Web storage supports persistent data storage, similar to cookies but with a greatly enhanced capacity and no information stored in the HTTP request header . There are two main web storage types: local storage and session storage, behaving similarly to persistent cookies and session cookies respectively. Web storage is being standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It was originally part of the HTML5
HTML5
specification, but is now in a separate specification. It is supported by Internet Explorer 8 , Mozilla
Mozilla
-based browsers (e.g., Firefox 2+ , officially from 3.5 ), Safari 4, Google Chrome
Google Chrome
4 (session storage is from 5), and Opera 10.50
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WebCL
WEBCL (WEB COMPUTING LANGUAGE) is a JavaScript
JavaScript
binding to OpenCL for heterogeneous parallel computing within any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins , first announced in March 2011. It is developed on similar grounds as OpenCL and is considered as a browser version of the latter. Primarily, WebCL
WebCL
allows web applications to actualize speed with multi-core CPUs and GPUs . With the growing popularity of applications that need parallel processing like image editing, augmented reality applications and sophisticated gaming, it has become more important to improve the computational speed. With these background reasons, a non-profit Khronos Group designed and developed WebCL, which is a Javascript binding to OpenCL with a portable kernel programming, enabling parallel computing on web browsers, across a wide range of devices
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Framing (world Wide Web)
In the context of a web browser, a FRAME is a part of a web page or browser window which displays content independent of its container, with the ability to load content independently. The HTML
HTML
or media elements that go in a frame may or may not come from the same web site as the other elements of content on display. In HTML
HTML
, a FRAMESET is a group of named frames to which web pages and media can be directed; an IFRAME provides for a frame to be placed inside the body of a document. Since the early 2000s, the use of framesets has increasingly been considered obsolete due to usability and accessibility concerns, and the feature has been removed from the HTML5
HTML5
standard
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