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CSIM
A CDMA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (CSIM) is an application to support CDMA2000 phones that runs on a UICC
UICC
, with a file structure derived from the R-UIM card. By porting the application to the UICC
UICC
(Universal Integrated Circuit Card), a card with CSIM, SIM , and USIM can operate with all major cellular technologies worldwide. The CSIM application allows users to change phones by simply removing the smart card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device supporting the CDMA2000 radio interface
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Cordless Telephone
A CORDLESS TELEPHONE or PORTABLE TELEPHONE is a telephone in which the handset is portable and communicates with the body of the phone by radio , instead of being attached by a cord. The base station is connected to the telephone network through a telephone line as a corded telephone is, and also serves as a charger to charge the handset's batteries . The range is limited, usually to the same building or some short distance from the base station. The base station on subscriber premises is what differentiates a cordless telephone from a mobile telephone . Current cordless telephone standards, such as PHS and DECT , have blurred the once clear-cut line between cordless and mobile telephones by implementing cell handoff (handover); various advanced features, such as data-transfer; and even, on a limited scale, international roaming . In specialized models, base stations are maintained by a commercial mobile network operator and users subscribe to the service
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Bluetooth
BLUETOOTH is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF
UHF
radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz ) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth
Bluetooth
is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth
Bluetooth
as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth
Bluetooth
SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks
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Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
DIGITAL ENHANCED CORDLESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications), usually known by the acronym DECT, is a standard primarily used for creating cordless telephone systems. It originated in Europe, where it is the universal standard, replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as 900 MHz CT1 and CT2 . Beyond Europe, it has been adopted by Australia
Australia
, and most countries in Asia
Asia
and South America
South America
. North American adoption was delayed by United States
United States
radio frequency regulations. This forced development of a variation of DECT, called DECT 6.0, using a slightly different frequency range which makes these units incompatible with systems intended for use in other areas, even from the same manufacturer
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Mobile Phone
A MOBILE PHONE is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator , which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are often also called cellular telephones or cell phones. In addition to telephony , 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services , such as text messaging , MMS , email , Internet access , short-range wireless communications (infrared , Bluetooth ), business applications, gaming, and digital photography . Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones . The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F
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Evolution-Data Optimized
EVOLUTION-DATA OPTIMIZED (EV-DO, EVDO, etc.) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access . EV-DO is an evolution of the CDMA2000 ( IS-2000 ) standard that supports high data rates and can be deployed alongside a wireless carrier's voice services. It uses advanced multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time division multiplexing (TDM) to maximize throughput. It is a part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world particularly those previously employing CDMA
CDMA
networks. It is also used on the Globalstar
Globalstar
satellite phone network. EV-DO service has been or will be discontinued in much of Canada in 2015
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Glonass
GLONASS
GLONASS
(Russian : ГЛОНАСС, IPA: ; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service . It provides an alternative to GPS
GPS
and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS
GPS
devices say that adding GLONASS
GLONASS
made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where the view to some GPS
GPS
satellites is obscured by buildings
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Galileo (satellite Navigation)
GALILEO is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is currently being created by the European Union
European Union
(EU) through the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA) and the European GNSS Agency (GSA), headquartered in Prague
Prague
in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich
Munich
in Germany
Germany
and Fucino in Italy. The €5 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei

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Direct-sequence CDMA
In telecommunications , DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD SPECTRUM (DSSS) is a spread spectrum modulation technique used to reduce overall signal interference . The spreading of this signal makes the resulting wideband channel more noisy , allowing for greater resistance to unintentional and intentional interference. A method of achieving the spreading of a given signal is provided by the modulation scheme. With DSSS, the message signal is used to modulate a bit sequence known as a Pseudo Noise (PN) code; this PN code consists of a radio pulse that is much shorter in duration (larger bandwidth) than the original message signal. This modulation of the message signal scrambles and spreads the pieces of data, and thereby resulting in a bandwidth size nearly identical to that of the PN sequence. In this context, the duration of the radio pulse for the PN code is referred to as the chip duration
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Multi-carrier Code-division Multiple Access
MULTI-CARRIER CODE-DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (MC-CDMA) is a multiple access scheme used in OFDM -based telecommunication systems, allowing the system to support multiple users at the same time. MC-CDMA spreads each user symbol in the frequency domain. That is, each user symbol is carried over multiple parallel subcarriers, but it is phase-shifted (typically 0 or 180 degrees) according to a code value. The code values differ per subcarrier and per user. The receiver combines all subcarrier signals, by weighing these to compensate varying signal strengths and undo the code shift. The receiver can separate signals of different users, because these have different (e.g. orthogonal) code values. Since each data symbol occupies a much wider bandwidth (in hertz) than the data rate (in bit/s), a ratio of signal to noise-plus-interference (if defined as signal power divided by total noise plus interference power in the entire transmission band) of less than 0 dB is feasible
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Space Network
SPACE NETWORK (SN) is a NASA program that combines space and ground elements to support spacecraft communications in Earth vicinity. The SN Project Office at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) manages the SN, which consists of: * The geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS), * Supporting ground terminal systems, * The Bilateration Ranging and Transponder System (BRTS), * Merritt Island Launch Annex (MILA) relay, * Network Control Center Data System (NCCDS).CONTENTS * 1 Satellite generations * 2 Coverage * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SATELLITE GENERATIONS First Generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (F1-F7) Second Generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (F8-F10 also known as H, I, J) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) currently consists of first generation (F1-F7), and second generation (F8-F10) satellites
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Global Positioning System
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force . It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
GPS
satellites. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information. The GPS
GPS
provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world
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IS-95
INTERIM STANDARD 95 (IS-95) was the first ever CDMA -based digital cellular technology. It was developed by Qualcomm
Qualcomm
and later adopted as a standard by the Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
in TIA/EIA/ IS-95
IS-95
release published in 1995. The proprietary name for IS-95
IS-95
is CDMAONE. It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA , a multiple access scheme for digital radio , to send voice, data and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones and cell sites . CDMA or "code division multiple access" is a digital radio system that transmits streams of bits (PN codes ). CDMA permits several radios to share the same frequencies
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Qualcomm
QUALCOMM is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses. The company headquarters is located in San Diego , California
California
, United States, and has 224 worldwide locations. The parent company is Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Incorporated (Qualcomm), which includes the Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technology Licensing Division (QTL). Qualcomm's wholly owned subsidiary, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technologies, Inc. (QTI), operates substantially all of Qualcomm's R&D activities, as well as its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
CDMA
CDMA
Technologies
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Modulation
In electronics and telecommunications , MODULATION is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform , called the carrier signal , with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. In general telecommunications, modulation is a process of conveying message signal, for example, a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation
Modulation
of a sine waveform transforms a narrow frequency range baseband message signal into a moderate to high frequency range passband signal, one that can pass through a filter. A MODULATOR is a device that performs modulation. A DEMODULATOR (sometimes detector or demod) is a device that performs demodulation , the inverse of modulation
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Data Transmission
DATA TRANSMISSION, DIGITAL TRANSMISSION or DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS is the transfer of data (a digital bit stream or a digitized analog signal ) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel . Examples of such channels are copper wires , optical fibers , wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses . The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal , such as an electrical voltage , radiowave , microwave , or infrared signal. Analog or analogue transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method
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