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CSIM
A CDMA subscriber identity module (CSIM) is an application to support CDMA2000
CDMA2000
phones that runs on a UICC, with a file structure derived from the R-UIM
R-UIM
card. By porting the application to the UICC
UICC
(Universal Integrated Circuit Card), a card with CSIM, SIM, and USIM can operate with all major cellular technologies worldwide
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Image Map
In HTML
HTML
and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination). For example, a map of the world may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. The intention of an image map is to provide an easy way of linking various parts of an image without dividing the image into separate image files.Contents1 Server-side 2 Client-side2.1 Pure HTML 2.2 CSS3 Creation and use 4 References 5 Tutorials and Web linksServer-side[edit] Server-side image maps were first supported in Mosaic (web browser) version 1.1.[1] Server-side image maps enable the web browser to send positional information to the server about where the user clicks within an image
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Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm
is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses.[2] The company headquarters is located in San Diego, California, United States, and has 224 worldwide locations. The parent company is Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Incorporated (Qualcomm), which includes the Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technology Licensing Division (QTL). Qualcomm's wholly owned subsidiary, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technologies, Inc
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Space Network
Space Network
Space Network
(SN) is a NASA
NASA
program that combines space and ground elements to support spacecraft communications in Earth
Earth
vicinity
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Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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Galileo (satellite Navigation)
Galileo
Galileo
is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union
European Union
(EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA),[3] headquartered in Prague
Prague
in the Czech Republic,[4] with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen
Oberpfaffenhofen
near Munich
Munich
in Germany
Germany
and Fucino
Fucino
in Italy. The €5 billion project[5] is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo
Galileo
Galilei
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GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS
(Russian: ГЛОНАСС, IPA: [ɡɫɐˈnas]; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS
GPS
navigation devices say that adding GLONASS
GLONASS
made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where the view to some GPS
GPS
satellites is obscured by buildings.[1][2][3] Development of GLONASS
GLONASS
began in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1976
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Bluetooth
Bluetooth
Bluetooth
is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF
UHF
radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz[3]) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
in 1994,[4] it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232
RS-232
data cables. Bluetooth
Bluetooth
is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
Bluetooth Special Interest Group
(SIG), which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics.[5] The IEEE standardized Bluetooth
Bluetooth
as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard
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Cordless Telephone
A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone in which the handset is portable and communicates with the body of the phone by radio, instead of being attached by a cord. The base station is connected to the telephone network through a telephone line as a corded telephone is, and also serves as a charger to charge the handset's batteries. The range is limited, usually to the same building or some short distance from the base station. The base station on subscriber premises is what differentiates a cordless telephone from a mobile telephone. Current cordless telephone standards, such as PHS and DECT, have blurred the once clear-cut line between cordless and mobile telephones by implementing cell handoff (handover); various advanced features, such as data-transfer; and even, on a limited scale, international roaming
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Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
(Digital European Cordless Telecommunications), usually known by the acronym DECT, is a standard primarily used for creating cordless telephone systems. It originated in Europe, where it is the universal standard, replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as 900 MHz CT1 and CT2.[1] Beyond Europe, it has been adopted by Australia, and most countries in Asia
Asia
and South America. North American adoption was delayed by United States radio frequency regulations. This forced development of a variation of DECT, called DECT 6.0, using a slightly different frequency range which makes these units incompatible with systems intended for use in other areas, even from the same manufacturer
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Mobile Phone
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet
Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography
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Evolution-Data Optimized
Evolution-Data Optimized
Evolution-Data Optimized
(EV-DO, EVDO, etc.) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. EV-DO is an evolution of the CDMA2000
CDMA2000
(IS-2000) standard that supports high data rates and can be deployed alongside a wireless carrier's voice services. It uses advanced multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time division multiplexing (TDM) to maximize throughput. It is a part of the CDMA2000
CDMA2000
family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world particularly those previously employing CDMA
CDMA
networks
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Chip (CDMA)
In digital communications, a chip is a pulse of a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code, such as a Pseudo-random Noise (PN) code sequence used in direct-sequence code division multiple access (CDMA) channel access techniques. In a binary direct-sequence system, each chip is typically a rectangular pulse of +1 or –1 amplitude, which is multiplied by a data sequence (similarly +1 or –1 representing the message bits) and by a carrier waveform to make the transmitted signal. The chips are therefore just the bit sequence out of the code generator; they are called chips to avoid confusing them with message bits.[1] The chip rate of a code is the number of pulses per second (chips per second) at which the code is transmitted (or received). The chip rate is larger than the symbol rate, meaning that one symbol is represented by multiple chips
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Direct-sequence CDMA
In telecommunications, direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) is a spread spectrum modulation technique used to reduce overall signal interference. The spreading of this signal makes the resulting wideband channel more noisy, allowing for greater resistance to unintentional and intentional interference.[1] A method of achieving the spreading of a given signal is provided by the modulation scheme. With DSSS, the message signal is used to modulate a bit sequence known as a Pseudo Noise (PN) code; this PN code consists of a radio pulse that is much shorter in duration (larger bandwidth) than the original message signal. This modulation of the message signal scrambles and spreads the pieces of data, and thereby resulting in a bandwidth size nearly identical to that of the PN sequence.[1] In this context, the duration of the radio pulse for the PN code is referred to as the chip duration
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Near–far Problem
The near–far problem or hearability problem is a situation that is common in wireless communication systems, in particular, CDMA. In some signal jamming techniques, the near–far problem is exploited to disrupt communications.Contents1 Technical explanation 2 Analogies 3 Solutions 4 See also 5 ReferencesTechnical explanation[edit] The near–far problem is a condition in which a receiver captures a strong signal and thereby makes it impossible for the receiver to detect a weaker signal. Analogies[edit] Consider a receiver and two transmitters, one close to the receiver, the other far away. If both transmitters transmit simultaneously and at equal powers, then due to the inverse square law the receiver will receive more power from the nearer transmitter. Since one transmission's signal is the other's noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the further transmitter is much lower
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Spectral Density
The power spectrum S x x ( f ) displaystyle S_ xx (f) of a time series x ( t ) displaystyle x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.[1] According to Fourier analysis
Fourier analysis
any physical signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal or sort of signal (including noise) as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called its spectrum. When the energy of the signal is concentrated around a finite time interval, especially if its total energy is finite, one may compute the energy spectral density
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