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CP/CMS
CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) is a discontinued time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features.[1][2] It had three distinct versions:CP-40/CMS, an important "one-off" research system that established the CP/CMS virtual machine architecture CP-67/CMS, a reimplementation of CP-40/CMS for the IBM
IBM
System/360-67, and the primary focus of this article CP-370/CMS, a reimplementation of CP-67/CMS for the System/370
System/370
– never released as such, but became the foundation of IBM's VM/370 operating system, announced in 1972.Each implementation was a substantial redesign of its predecessor and an evolutionary step forward. CP-67/CMS was the first widely available virtual machine architecture
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Partial Virtualization
Hardware virtualization
Hardware virtualization
is the virtualization of computers as complete hardware platforms, certain logical abstractions of their componentry, or only the functionality required to run various operating systems. Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from the users, presenting instead an abstract computing plat
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Free Software
Free software
Free software
or libre software[1][2] is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.[3][4][5][6][7] Free software
Free software
is a matter of liberty, not price: users —individually or in cooperation with computer programmers— are free to do what they want with their copies of a free software (including profiting from them) regardless of how much is paid to obtain the program.[8][2] Computer programs are deemed free insofar as they give users (not just the developer) ultimate control over the first, thereby allowing them to control what their devices are programmed to do.[5][9] The right to study and modify a computer program entails that source code —the preferred format for making changes— be made available to users of that program
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software creat
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Hercules Emulator
Hercules is a computer emulator allowing software written for IBM mainframe computers (System/370, System/390, and zSeries/System z) and for plug compatible mainframes (such as Amdahl machines) to run on other types of computer hardware, notably on low-cost personal computers. Although there are other mainframe emulators performing a similar function, Hercules is significant in enabling private individuals to run mainframe computer software on their own personal computers. Hercules runs under multiple parent operating systems including GNU/Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, Solaris, and Mac OS X
Mac OS X
and is released under the open source software license QPL.[2] It is analogous to Bochs
Bochs
and QEMU
QEMU
in that it emulates CPU instructions and select peripheral devices only. A vendor (or distributor) must still provide an operating system, and the user must install it
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System Generation
In computing System generation or sysgen is the process of creating a particular unique instance of an operating system by combining user-specified options and parameters with manufacturer-supplied general-purpose program code to produce an operating system tailored for a particular hardware and software environment.[1] Some other programs have similar processes, although not usually called "sysgen." For example, IBM's Customer Information Control System (CICS) was installed through a process called CICSGEN. Rationale[edit] A large general-purpose program such as an operating system has to provide support for all variations of Central processing unit
Central processing unit
(CPU) that it might be run on, for all supported main memory sizes, and for all possible configurations of input/output (I/O) equipment
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Source Code
In computing, source code is any collection of computer instructions, possibly with comments, written using[1] a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus immediately executed. Most application software is distributed in a form that includes only executable files
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Bare Machine
In computer science, bare machine (or bare metal) refers to a computer executing instructions directly on logic hardware without an intervening operating system. Modern operating systems evolved through various stages, from elementary to the present day complex, highly sensitive systems incorporating many services. After the development of programmable computers (which did not require physical changes to run different programs) but prior to the development of operating systems, sequential instructions were executed on the computer hardware directly using machine language without any system software layer. This approach is termed the "bare machine" precursor to modern operating systems
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Open-source
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5] Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms
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MIT
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics and management as well
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Research And Development
Research
Research
and development (R&D, R+D, or Rn'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.[1] Research
Research
and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process. R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models[1] of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development
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MULTICS
Multics
Multics
(Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.[4][5] Virtually all modern operating systems were heavily influenced by Multics, often through Unix, which had been created by the people who had worked on Multics—either directly (Linux, macOS) or indirectly (Microsoft Windows NT).Contents1 Overview 2 Novel ideas 3 Project history3.1 Current status4 Retrospective observations 5 Influence on other projects5.1 Unix 5.2 Other operating systems6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading8.1 Technical details 8.2 Security9 External linksOverview[edit] Initial planning and development for Multics
Multics
started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(International Business
Business
Machines Corporation) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S
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Free Software Movement
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement[1] with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes
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Lincoln Laboratory
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States
United States
Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security. The Laboratory provides a technical base for military electronics ranging from radars to reentry physics.[1] Research and development activities focus on long-term technology development as well as rapid system prototyping and demonstration. These efforts are aligned within key mission areas. The laboratory works with industry to transition new concepts and technology for system development and deployment
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