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CIELAB
The Lab color space
Lab color space
describes mathematically all perceivable colors in the three dimensions L for lightness and a and b for the color components green–red and blue–yellow. The terminology "Lab" originates from the Hunter 1948 color space.[1][2] Nowadays "Lab" is frequently mis-used as abbreviation for CIEL*a*b* 1976 color space (also CIELAB); the asterisks/stars distinguish the CIE version from Hunter's original version. The difference from the Hunter Lab coordinates is that the CIELAB coordinates are created by a cube root transformation of the CIE XYZ
CIE XYZ
color data, while the Hunter Lab coordinates are the result of a square root transformation
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Cylindrical Coordinates
A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis, the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction, and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis. The latter distance is given as a positive or negative number depending on which side of the reference plane faces the point. The origin of the system is the point where all three coordinates can be given as zero
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Color Solid
A color solid is the three-dimensional representation of a color model, an analog of the two-dimensional color wheel. The added spatial dimension allows a color solid to depict an added dimension of color variation
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TIFF
Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry,[1] and photographers. TIFF is widely supported by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition, image manipulation, desktop publishing, and page-layout applications.[2] The format was created by Aldus
Aldus
Corporation for use in desktop publishing. It published the latest version 6.0 in 1992, subsequently updated with an Adobe Systems
Adobe Systems
copyright after the latter acquired Aldus
Aldus
in 1994
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PDF
The Portable Document
Document
Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.[3][4] Based on the PostScript
PostScript
language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it
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OS X
macOS (/ˌmækoʊˈɛs/;[5] previously Mac OS X, then OS X) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows.[6][7] macOS is the second major series of Macintosh
Macintosh
operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9
in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X
OS X
10.8 Mountain Lion
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Richard S. Hunter
Richard Sewall Hunter (1909–1991) was an American color scientist and founder of Hunter Associates Laboratory (HunterLab).[1] [2] He is best known as the inventor in 1942 of the Lab color space.[3][4] Hunter was awarded the David Richardson Medal
David Richardson Medal
in 1971.[5] Biography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Richard Hunter was born in Washington, DC on October 25, 1909 and lived his entire life in Northern, Virginia. He graduated from the old McKinley Technical High School in Washington, DC in 1927 and took the US Civil Service exam. He found employment, as a "minor Laboratory apprentice" in the colorimetry section of what was then the National Bureau of Standards, working with pioneers in the color measurement field like Dr. Deane B. Judd
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Initialism
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO
NATO
or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There are no universal standards of the multiple names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century
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Color Vision
Color
Color
vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit. Colors can be measured and quantified in various ways; indeed, a person's perception of colors is a subjective process whereby the brain responds to the stimuli that are produced when incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye
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Chrominance
Chrominance
Chrominance
(chroma or C for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y for short). Chrominance
Chrominance
is usually represented as two color-difference components: U = B′ − Y′ (blue − luma) and V = R′ − Y′ (red − luma). Each of these difference components may have scale factors and offsets applied to it, as specified by the applicable video standard. In composite video signals, the U and V signals modulate a color subcarrier signal, and the result is referred to as the chrominance signal; the phase and amplitude of this modulated chrominance signal correspond approximately to the hue and saturation of the color
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Blend Modes
Blend modes
Blend modes
(or Mixing modes[1]) in digital image editing and computer graphics are used to determine how two layers are blended into each other. The default blend mode in most applications is simply to hide the lower layer with whatever is present in the top layer. However, as each pixel has a numerical representation, a large number of ways to blend two layers is possible. The top layer is not necessarily called a "layer" in the application
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Euclidean Distance
In mathematics, the Euclidean distance
Euclidean distance
or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space. With this distance, Euclidean space
Euclidean space
becomes a metric space. The associated norm is called the Euclidean norm. Older literature refers to the metric as Pythagorean metric
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Illuminant D65
CIE Standard Illuminant D65
Illuminant D65
(sometimes written D65[1][2]) is a commonly used standard illuminant defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).[3] It is part of the D series of illuminants that try to portray standard illumination conditions at open-air in different parts of the world. D65 corresponds roughly to the average midday light in Western Europe / Northern Europe
Northern Europe
(comprising both direct sunlight and the light diffused by a clear sky), hence it is also called a daylight illuminant. As any standard illuminant is represented as a table of averaged spectrophotometric data, any light source which statistically has the same relative spectral power distribution (SPD) can be considered a D65 light source. There are no actual D65 light sources, only simulators
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Lightness (color)
In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness. It is one of the color appearance parameters of any color appearance model. Various color models have an explicit term for this property. The Munsell color model uses the term value, while the HSL color model, HCL color space
HCL color space
and Lab color space
Lab color space
use the term lightness. The HSV model uses the term value a little differently: a color with a low value is nearly black, but one with a high value is the pure, fully saturated color. In subtractive color (i.e. paints) value changes can be achieved by adding black or white to the color. However, this also reduces saturation. Chiaroscuro
Chiaroscuro
and Tenebrism
Tenebrism
both take advantage of dramatic contrasts of value to heighten drama in art
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Lambert's Law
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ between the direction of the incident light and the surface normal.[1][2] The law is also known as the cosine emission law[3] or Lambert's emission law. It is named after Johann Heinrich Lambert, from his Photometria, published in 1760.[4] A surface which obeys Lambert's law is said to be Lambertian, and exhibits Lambertian reflectance. Such a surface has the same radiance when viewed from any angle. This means, for example, that to the human eye it has the same apparent brightness (or luminance). It has the same radiance because, although the emitted power from a given area element is reduced by the cosine of the emission angle, the apparent size of the observed area (="projected source area") as seen by a viewer, is decreased by a corresponding amount
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Opponent Color
The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner. The three types of cones (L for long, M for medium and S for short) have some overlap in the wavelengths of light to which they respond, so it is more efficient for the visual system to record differences between the responses of cones, rather than each type of cone's individual response. The opponent color theory suggests that there are three opponent channels: red versus green, blue versus yellow, and black versus white (the last type is achromatic and detects light-dark variation, or luminance).[1] Responses to one color of an opponent channel are antagonistic to those to the other color
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