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CD44
1POZ, 1UUH, 2I83, 4PZ3, 4PZ4IdentifiersAliases CD44, CDW44, CSPG8, ECMR-III, HCELL, HUTCH-I, IN, LHR, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, Pgp1, CD44
CD44
molecule (Indian blood group)External IDs OMIM: 107269 MGI: 88338 HomoloGene: 508 GeneCards: CD44 Gene
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Protein Data Bank
The Protein
Protein
Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe,[1] PDBj,[2] and RCSB[3]). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein
Protein
Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key resource in areas of structural biology, such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB
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Transcription (genetics)
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase. Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA
RNA
polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA
RNA
polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA
DNA
helix
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Gene Nomenclature
Gene
Gene
nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms
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Tumor
Neoplasm
Neoplasm
is an abnormal growth of tissue which, if it forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor.[1][2][3] This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually (but not always) forms a mass.[4] ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior.[5] Malignant neoplasms
Malignant neoplasms
are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology. Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia.[6] However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia.[1] The word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νέος- neo "new" and πλάσμα plasma "formation, creation".Contents1 Types1.1 Clonality 1.2 Neoplasia
Neoplasia
vs
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Metastasis
Metastasis
Metastasis
is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body;[1] it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.[2] The newly pathological sites, then, are metastases (mets).[3][4] Cancer
Cancer
occurs after cells are genetically altered to proliferate rapidly and indefinitely. This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by anaplasia then dysplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype
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Ligand
In coordination chemistry, a ligand[help 1] is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal–ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal–ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known to involve Lewis acidic "ligands".[1][2] Metals and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox
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Collagen
Collagen
Collagen
/ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals,[1] making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen
Collagen
consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices to form of elongated fibrils.[2] It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). It is also abundant in corneas, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs, and the dentin in teeth.[3] In muscle tissue, it serves as a major component of the endomysium
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Matrix Metalloproteinase
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrixins, are calcium-dependent zinc-containing endopeptidases;[1] other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. The MMPs belong to a larger family of proteases known as the metzincin superfamily.[2] Collectively, these enzymes are capable of degrading all kinds of extracellular matrix proteins, but also can process a number of bioactive molecules. They are known to be involved in the cleavage of cell surface receptors, the release of apoptotic ligands (such as the FAS ligand), and chemokine/cytokine inactivation.[3] MMPs are also thought to play a major role in cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration (adhesion/dispersion), differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and host defense. They were first described in vertebrates (1962),[4] including humans, but have since been found in invertebrates and plants
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Alternative Splicing
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.[1] Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure)
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Isoform
A protein isoform, or "protein variant"[1] is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that perform the same or similar biological roles. A set of protein isoforms may be formed from alternative splicings or other post-translational modifications of a single gene. Through RNA splicing
RNA splicing
mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments (exons) of a gene, or even different parts of exons from RNA to form different mRNA sequences. Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely related genes that evolved from a single gene in the past. The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome
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Beta-catenin
1G3J, 1JDH, 1JPW, 1LUJ, 1P22, 1QZ7, 1T08, 1TH1, 2GL7, 2Z6H, 3DIW, 3SL9, 3SLA, 3TX7, 4DJS, 3FQN, 3FQRIdentifiersAliases CTNNB1, CTNNB, MRD19, armadillo, catenin beta 1, EVR7External IDs OMIM: 116806 MGI: 88276 HomoloGene: 1434 GeneCards: CTNNB1 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Wnt Signaling Pathway
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled
Frizzled
family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, and is thought to be negatively regulated in part by the SPATS1
SPATS1
gene.[1] The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell
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Homing (hematopoietic)
Homing is the phenomenon whereby cells migrate to the organ of their origin. By homing, transplanted hematopoietic cells are able to travel to and engraft or establish residence in the bone marrow. Various chemokines[1] and receptors[2] are involved in the homing of hematopoietic stem cells.[3] Sites[edit]Bone Marrow Lymph nodes[4] SkinReferences[edit]^ Cyster, JG; Ngo, VN; Ekland, EH; Gunn, MD; Sedgwick, JD; Ansel, KM (1999). " Chemokines
Chemokines
and B-cell homing to follicles". Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 246: 87–92; discussion 93. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-60162-0_11. ISBN 978-3-642-64283-8. PMID 10396043.  ^ Lopez-Giral, S.; Quintana, NE; Cabrerizo, M; Alfonso-Pérez, M; Sala-Valdés, M; De Soria, VG; Fernández-Rañada, JM; Fernández-Ruiz, E; Muñoz, C (23 April 2004)
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).[1][2]Contents1 Structure1.1 Definition 1.2 Morphology2 Location2.1 Bone marrow 2.2 Cord cells 2.3 Adipose tissue 2.4 Molar cells 2.5 Amniotic fluid3 Function3.1 Differentiation capacity 3.2 Immunomodulatory effects4 Clinical significance4.1 Autoimmune disease 4.2 Other diseases 4.3 Detection5 Research5.1 Culturing 5.2 Clinical trials of cryopreserved MSCs6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksStructure[edit] Definition[edit] While the terms mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and marrow stromal cell have been used interchangeably for many years, neither term is sufficiently descriptive:
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