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CAM-D
COMPATIBLE AMPLITUDE MODULATION - DIGITAL or CAM-D is a hybrid digital radio format for AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting
, proposed by broadcast engineer Leonard R. Kahn . The system is an in-band on-channel technology that uses the sidebands of any AM radio station . Analog information is still used up to a bandpass of about 7.5kHz , with standard amplitude modulation . The missing treble information that AM normally lacks is then transmitted digitally beyond this. Audio mixing in the receiver then blends them back together. Unlike other IBOC technologies like iBiquity 's HD Radio
HD Radio
, Kahn's apparently does not provide a direct path to all-digital transmissions , nor any multichannel capability . Its advantage, however, is that it takes up far less of the sidebands, thereby causing far less interference to adjacent channels , hence the "Compatible" in the name
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Adjacent Channel
In broadcasting an ADJACENT CHANNEL is an AM , FM , or TV channel that is next to another channel . First-adjacent is immediately next to another channel, second-adjacent is two channels away, and so forth. Information on adjacent channels is used in keeping stations from interfering with one another. See Adjacent-channel interference . SEE ALSO * co-channel This broadcasting-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Proprietary Protocol
In telecommunications , a PROPRIETARY PROTOCOL is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual. CONTENTS* 1 Intellectual property rights and enforcement * 1.1 Examples * 2 Effects of incompatibility * 3 Proprietary extensions to open protocols * 4 Reverse engineering * 5 References INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND ENFORCEMENTOwnership by a single organization gives the owner the ability to place restrictions on the use of the protocol and to change the protocol unilaterally. Specifications for proprietary protocols may or may not be published, and implementations are not freely distributed . Proprietors may enforce restrictions through control of the intellectual property rights, for example through enforcement of patent rights, and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret
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Interference (communication)
In communications and electronics , especially in telecommunications , INTERFERENCE is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver. The term typically refers to the addition of unwanted signals to a useful signal. Common examples are: * Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI) * Co-channel interference (CCI), also known as crosstalk * Adjacent-channel interference (ACI) * Intersymbol interference (ISI) * Inter-carrier interference (ICI), caused by doppler shift in OFDM modulation (multitone modulation). * Common-mode interference (CMI) * Conducted interference Interference is typically but not always distinguished from noise , for example white thermal noise . Radio resource management aims at reducing and controlling the co-channel and adjacent-channel interference
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Capability (systems Engineering)
A CAPABILITY, in the systems engineering sense, is defined as the ability to execute a specified course of action. A capability may or may not be accompanied by an intention. The term is used in the defense industry but also in private industry (e.g. Gap analysis ). CAPABILITY GAP ANALYSISThe Joint Capabilities Integration Development System is an important part of DoD military planning . The "Operation of the JCIDS" introduces a Capability Based Analysis (CBA) process that includes identification of capability gaps. In essence, a Capability Gap Analysis is the determination of needed capabilities that do not yet exist. The Department of Defense Architecture Framework
Department of Defense Architecture Framework
( DoDAF
DoDAF
) suggests the use of the Operational Activity Model (OV-5) in conducting a CGA
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Transmission (telecommunications)
In telecommunications , TRANSMISSION (abbreviation: TX) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium , either wired, optical fiber or wireless. One example of transmission is the sending of a signal with limited duration, for example a block or packet of data, a phone call, or an email. Transmission technologies and schemes typically refer to physical layer protocol duties such as modulation , demodulation , line coding , equalization , error control , bit synchronization and multiplexing , but the term may also involve higher-layer protocol duties, for example, digitizing an analog message signal, and source coding (compression). Transmission of a digital message, or of a digitized analog signal, is known as digital communication
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Stereophonic Sound
STEREOPHONIC SOUND or, more commonly, STEREO, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones ) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic " and "surround-sound " systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic , or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field ). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema
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Fidelity
FIDELITY is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty . Its original meaning regarded duty in a broader sense than the related concept of fealty . Both derive from the Latin
Latin
word fidēlis, meaning "faithful or loyal". In the City of London
City of London
financial markets it has traditionally been used in the sense encompassed in the motto "My word is my bond"
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Ibiquity
IBIQUITY DIGITAL CORPORATION is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world. Based in Columbia, Maryland
Columbia, Maryland
, with additional offices in Basking Ridge, New Jersey
Basking Ridge, New Jersey
, and Auburn Hills, Michigan
Auburn Hills, Michigan
, iBiquity is a privately held, intellectual properties company, whose investors include global leaders in the technology, broadcasting, manufacturing, media and financial industries. IBOC can operate on both AM band
AM band
and FM band broadcasts either in a digital-only mode, or in a "hybrid" digital+analog mode
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Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing
ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY-DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication , used in applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, DSL internet access , wireless networks , power line networks , and 4G mobile communications. In COFDM CODED ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY-DIVISION MULTIPLEXING forward error correction (convolutional coding) and time/frequency interleaving are applied to the signal being transmitted. This is done to overcome errors in mobile communication channels affected by multipath propagation and Doppler effects . COFDM was introduced by Alard in 1986 for Digital Audio Broadcasting
Digital Audio Broadcasting
for Eureka Project 147. In practice, OFDM has become used in combination with such coding and interleaving, so that the terms COFDM and OFDM co-apply to common applications
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Frequency Allocation
FREQUENCY ALLOCATION (or SPECTRUM ALLOCATION) is the division of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands . This spectrum management is regulated by governments in most countries. Radio propagation does not stop at national boundaries. Giving technical and economic reasons, governments have sought to harmonise the allocation of RF bands and their standardization. CONTENTS * 1 ITU definition * 2 Bodies * 3 Example * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ITU DEFINITIONThe International Telecommunication Union – defines frequency allocation as being of "a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions". Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
is also a special term, used in national frequency administration
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Citadel Communications
CITADEL COMMUNICATIONS LTD. is an American private broadcasting company. It is based in Bronxville, New York , and operates 2 full-power television stations, 1 low-power station and a regional 24-hour cable news channel. The company was founded in 1982 by former National Association of Broadcasters
National Association of Broadcasters
joint board chairman and current Broadcasters Foundation of America chairman Phil Lombardo. Upon completion of the Digital TV transition in 2009 , Citadel's stations at that time returned their digital broadcasts to their former analog channel assignments in the VHF spectrum. As a result of poor propagation characteristics for digital TV in the VHF bands, these stations now operate low-power digital fill-in translators in the UHF band to improve coverage in their communities of license
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High Fidelity
HIGH FIDELITY (often shortened to HI-FI or HIFI) reproduction is a term used by home stereo listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound to distinguish it from the lower quality sound produced by inexpensive audio equipment, or the inferior quality of sound reproduction that can be heard in recordings made until the late 1940s. Ideally, high-fidelity equipment has inaudible noise and distortion , and a flat (neutral, uncolored) frequency response within the intended frequency range. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Listening tests * 3 Semblance of realism * 4 Modularity * 5 Modern equipment * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORY Bell Laboratories began experimenting with a range of recording techniques in the early 1930s
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Time Diversity
TIME DIVERSITY is used in digital communication systems to combat that the transmissions channel may suffer from error bursts due to time-varying channel conditions. The error bursts may be caused by fading in combination with a moving receiver, transmitter or obstacle, or by intermittent electromagnetic interference, for example from crosstalk in a cable, or co-channel interference from radio transmitters. Time diversity implies that the same data is transmitted multiple times, or a redundant error correcting code is added. By means of bit-interleaving, the error bursts may be spread in time. SEE ALSO * Diversity scheme This article about wireless technology is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Signal To Noise Ratio
SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise . S/N ratio is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels . A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells). The signal-to-noise ratio, the bandwidth , and the channel capacity of a communication channel are connected by the Shannon–Hartley theorem . Signal-to-noise ratio
Signal-to-noise ratio
is sometimes used metaphorically to refer to the ratio of useful information to false or irrelevant data in a conversation or exchange
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Ibiquity
IBIQUITY DIGITAL CORPORATION is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world. Based in Columbia, Maryland
Columbia, Maryland
, with additional offices in Basking Ridge, New Jersey
Basking Ridge, New Jersey
, and Auburn Hills, Michigan
Auburn Hills, Michigan
, iBiquity is a privately held, intellectual properties company, whose investors include global leaders in the technology, broadcasting, manufacturing, media and financial industries. IBOC can operate on both AM band
AM band
and FM band broadcasts either in a digital-only mode, or in a "hybrid" digital+analog mode
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.