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C-QUAM
C-QUAM is the method of AM stereo
AM stereo
broadcasting used in Canada, the United States
United States
and most other countries. It was invented in 1977 by Norman Parker, Francis Hilbert, and Yoshio Sakaie, and published in an IEEE
IEEE
journal. Using circuitry developed by Motorola, C-QUAM uses quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) to encode the stereo separation signal. This extra signal is then stripped down in such a way that it is compatible with the envelope detector of older receivers (hence the name C-QUAM, i.e. Compatible QUadrature Amplitude Modulation)
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Sideband
In radio communications, a sideband is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency, containing power as a result of the modulation process. The sidebands consist of all the Fourier components of the modulated signal except the carrier. All forms of modulation produce sidebands. Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation
of a carrier signal normally results in two mirror-image sidebands. The signal components above the carrier frequency constitute the upper sideband (USB), and those below the carrier frequency constitute the lower sideband (LSB). For example, if a 900 kHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 1 kHz audio signal, there will be components at 899 kHz and 901 kHz as well as 900 kHz in the generated Radio
Radio
Frequency spectrum; so an audio bandwidth of (say) 7 kHz will require a radio spectrum bandwidth of 14 kHz
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Synchronous Detector
In electronics, a synchronous detector is a device that recovers information from a modulated signal by mixing the signal with a replica of the un-modulated carrier. This can be locally generated at the receiver using a phase-locked loop or other techniques. Synchronous detection preserves any phase information originally present in the modulating signal. Synchronous detection is a necessary component of any analog color television receiver, where it allows recovery of the phase information that conveys hue.[1] Synchronous detectors are also found in some shortwave radio receivers used for audio signals, where they provide better performance on signals that may be affected by fading. See also[edit]Lock-in amplifierReferences[edit]^ Donald G. Fink (ed.)., Electronics
Electronics
Engineers' Handbook, McGraw Hill, 1975 ISBN 0-07-020980-4 page 20-57This technology-related article is a stub
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Frequency Allocation
Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
(or spectrum allocation or spectrum management) is the allocation and regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands, which is normally done by governments in most countries.[1] Because radio propagation does not stop at national boundaries, governments have sought to harmonise the allocation of RF bands and their standardization.Contents1 ITU definition 2 Bodies 3 Example 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksITU definition[edit] The International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
defines frequency allocation as being of "a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions".[2] Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
is also a special term, used in national frequency administration
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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CFCB
CFCB
CFCB
is an AM radio
AM radio
station in Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, broadcasting at 570 kHz operating at a power of 10,000 watts daytime and 1,000 watts night time. Owned by Newcap Radio, CFCB
CFCB
first went on the air on October 3, 1960. The year 2010 marked CFCB's 50th anniversary of broadcasting. The station was founded by Dr. Noel Murphy. On March 26, 2012, CFCB
CFCB
rebranded, which included a new slogan, logo and programming. The "Local News
News
Now" slogan was adopted from VOCM in St. John's who had rebranded just weeks before
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North Myrtle Beach
North Myrtle Beach is a city in Horry County, South Carolina, United States. It was created in 1968 from four existing municipalities north of Myrtle Beach, and serves as one of the primary tourist towns along the Grand Strand. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,752,[3] and in 2016 the estimated population was 16,032.[4] The Myrtle Beach–Conway–North Myrtle Beach Metropolitan Area had a combined population of 449,295 as of 2016.[5]Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 Neighborhoods 4 Schools 5 Government 6 Restaurants 7 Nightlife 8 Notable people 9 Transportation9.1 Road 9.2 Air 9.3 Bus10 Adjacent towns and communities 11 References 12 External linksGeography[edit] North Myrtle Beach is located in eastern Horry County at 33°49′20″N 78°40′52″W / 33.82222°N 78.68111°W / 33.82222; -78.68111 (33.822216, -78.680974).[6] It is bordered to the southwest by Atlantic Beach and Briarcliffe Acres and to the northeast by Little River. Via U.S
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IBiquity
iBiquity Digital Corporation is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world. Based in Columbia, Maryland, with additional offices in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, and Auburn Hills, Michigan, iBiquity is a privately held, intellectual properties company, whose investors include global leaders in the technology, broadcasting, manufacturing, media and financial industries. IBOC can operate on both AM band
AM band
and FM band broadcasts either in a digital-only mode, or in a "hybrid" digital+analog mode. Most broadcasters for the foreseeable future will use the hybrid method, reportedly giving AM stations FM quality sound, while allowing FM stations to broadcast mp3 audio (~96kbps)
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Westerly, Rhode Island
Westerly is a town on the southwestern shoreline of Washington County, Rhode Island, United States founded in 1669 by John Babcock. It is a beachfront community on the south shore of the state. The population was 22,787 at the 2010 census. On the western border of Westerly flows the Pawcatuck River, once renowned for its own species of Westerly salmon, three of which are on the town's crest. The river flows from some fifteen miles (24 km) inland, emptying into Little Narragansett Bay. It also serves as the boundary between Westerly and Pawcatuck, Connecticut. Along the coast of Westerly lie salt ponds which serve as shallow reeflike pools whose outer walls form the long, white beaches for which the town became renowned. From west to east, these ponds are called Maschaug Pond, Winnapaug Pond, and Quonochontaug Pond. The town also has the fresh water lake Chapman's Pond which is undergoing revitalization
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Ionosphere
The ionosphere (/aɪˈɒnəˌsfɪər/[1][2]) is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about 60 km (37 mi) to 1,000 km (620 mi) altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation
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Skywave
In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. Since it is not limited by the curvature of the Earth, skywave propagation can be used to communicate beyond the horizon, at intercontinental distances. It is mostly used in the shortwave frequency bands. As a result of skywave propagation, a signal from a distant AM broadcasting station, a shortwave station, or—during sporadic E propagation conditions (principally during the summer months in both hemispheres) a distant VHF
VHF
FM or TV station can sometimes be received as clearly as local stations. Most long-distance shortwave (high frequency) radio communication—between 3 and 30 MHz—is a result of skywave propagation
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Adjacent Channel Interference
Adjacent-channel interference (ACI) is interference caused by extraneous power from a signal in an adjacent channel. ACI may be caused by inadequate filtering (such as incomplete filtering of unwanted modulation products in FM systems), improper tuning or poor frequency control (in the reference channel, the interfering channel or both). ACI is distinguished from crosstalk.[1]Contents1 Origin 2 Avoidance procedure 3 See also 4 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The adjacent-channel interference which receiver A experiences from a transmitter B is the sum of the power that B emits into A's channel—known as the "unwanted emission", and represented by the ACLR (Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio)—and the power that A picks up from B's channel, which is represented by the ACS (Adjacent Channel Selectivity). B emitting power into A's channel is called adjacent-channel leakage (unwanted emissions). It occurs for two reasons
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Part 15
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions. It is a part of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), and regulates everything from spurious emissions to unlicensed low-power broadcasting
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AMAX
AMAX is an American certification program developed by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in 1993. This quality control program addressed both consumer receiver developments and air chains of broadcast AM transmission stations. Tuners and receivers offering AMAX Stereo were designed to capture the widest audio frequency response and stereo separation of AM stereo
AM stereo
broadcasts, where available. Prerequisites[edit] AMAX Stereo products are not widely available to the public
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Receiver (radio)
In radio communications, a receiver (radio receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information
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HD Radio
HD Radio
HD Radio
is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality). The HD format also provides the means for a single radio station to simultaneously broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel. It was selected by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
U.S. Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States,[1][2] and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States
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