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Cōdex
A codex (/ˈkoʊdɛks/) (from the Latin
Latin
caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices (/ˈkɒdɪsiːz/), is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials. The term is now usually only used of manuscript books, with hand-written contents,[1] but describes the format that is now near-universal for printed books in the Western world. The book is usually bound by stacking the pages and fixing one edge, and using a cover thicker than the sheets. Some codices are continuously folded like a concertina. The alternative to paged codex format for a long document is the continuous scroll. Examples of folded codices include the Maya codices. Sometimes people use the term for a book-style format, including modern printed books but excluding folded books. The Romans developed the form from wooden writing tablets
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Codex (other)
Codex
Codex
is distinguished from codec
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Saturnalia
Saturnalia
Saturnalia
was an ancient Roman festival
Roman festival
in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December. The holiday was celebrated with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn, in the Roman Forum, and a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: gambling was permitted, and masters provided table service for their slaves.[1] A common custom was the election of a "King of the Saturnalia", who would give orders to people and preside over the merrymaking. The gifts exchanged were usually gag gifts or small figurines made of wax or pottery known as sigillaria
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Bookbinding
Bookbinding
Bookbinding
is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, and plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration
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Paleography
Palaeography
Palaeography
(UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from Greek: παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts,[2] and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.[3] The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts
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Polyptych
A polyptych (/ˈpɒlɪptɪk/ POL-ip-tik; Greek: poly- "many" and ptychē "fold") is a painting (usually panel painting) which is divided into sections, or panels. Specifically, a "diptych" is a two-part work of art; a "triptych" is a three-part work; a tetraptych or quadriptych has four parts; pentaptych five; hexaptych six; heptaptych (or septych in Latin) seven; and octaptych eight parts. Polyptychs typically display one "central" or "main" panel that is usually the largest of the attachments, while the other panels are called "side" panels, or "wings". Sometimes, as evident in the Ghent and Isenheim works, the hinged panels can be varied in arrangement to show different "views" or "openings" in the piece. Polyptychs were most commonly created by early Renaissance
Renaissance
painters, the majority of which designed their works to be altarpieces in churches and cathedrals
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Herculaneum
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum
Herculaneum
(Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD. Its ruins are located in the comune of Ercolano, Campania, Italy. As a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, it is famous as one of the few ancient cities that can now be seen in much of its original splendour, as well as for having been lost, along with Pompeii, Stabiae, Oplontis and Boscoreale, in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in AD 79 that buried it. Unlike Pompeii, the deep pyroclastic material which covered it preserved wooden and other organic-based objects such as roofs, beds, doors, food and even some 300 skeletons which were discovered in recent years along the seashore
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Theodore Cressy Skeat
Theodore Cressy Skeat (15 February 1907 — 25 June 2003) was a librarian at the British Museum, where he worked as Assistant Keeper (from 1931), Deputy Keeper (from 1948), and Keeper of Manuscripts and Egerton Librarian (from 1961 to 1972) after studies in Cambridge and a spell at the British School of Archaeology in Athens. His work coincided with two important acquisitions by the Trustees of the aforementioned institution, namely the Codex Sinaiticus and the apocryphal Gospel Egerton 2 Papyrus (a.k.a. the Egerton Gospel). He made a name for himself with important contributions to palaeography, papyrology, and codicology, particularly—but not only—in relation to these two acquisitions. He was the grandson of noted philologist Walter William Skeat.Contents1 Obituaries 2 Select bibliography 3 References 4 External linksObituaries[edit]J. Keith Elliott, Theodore Cressy Skeat, TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism, 2003.[1] J. Keith Elliott, Obituary: T. C
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Classical Latin
Classical Latin
Latin
is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin
Latin
language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In some later periods, it was regarded as "good" Latin, with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt. The word Latin
Latin
is now taken by default as meaning "Classical Latin", so that, for example, modern Latin
Latin
textbooks describe Classical Latin. Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
and his contemporaries of the late republic, while using lingua latina and sermo latinus to mean the Latin
Latin
language as opposed to Greek or other languages, and sermo vulgaris or sermo vulgi to refer to the vernacular, referred to the speech they valued most and in which they wrote as latinitas,[1] "Latinity", with the implication of good
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Couplet
A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry. A couplet usually consists of two successive lines that rhyme and have the same metre. A couplet may be formal (closed) or run-on (open). In a formal (or closed) couplet, each of the two lines is end-stopped, implying that there is a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse. In a run-on (or open) couplet, the meaning of the first line continues to the second.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Couplets in English poetry 3 Couplets in Chinese poetry 4 Couplets in Tamil poetry 5 Distich 6 See also 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] The word "couplet" comes from the French word meaning "two pieces of iron riveted or hinged together." The term "couplet" was first used to describe successive lines of verse in Sir P. Sidney's Arcadia in 1590: "In singing some short coplets, whereto the one halfe beginning, the other halfe should answere." [2] While couplets traditionally rhyme, not all do
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Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
(/ɒksɪˈrɪŋkəs/; Greek: Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya. It is also an archaeological site, considered one of the most important ever discovered. For the past century, the area around Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
has been continually excavated, yielding an enormous collection of papyrus texts dating from the time of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history. Among the texts discovered at Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
are plays of Menander, fragments from the Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas, and fragments from Euclid's Elements. They also include a few vellum manuscripts, and more recent Arabic manuscripts on paper (for example, the medieval P. Oxy
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Palimpsest
In textual studies, a palimpsest (/ˈpælɪmpsɛst/) is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.[1] Pergamene (now known as parchment) was made of lamb, calf, or goat kid skin (best made in ancient Pergamon) and was expensive and not readily available, so in the interest of economy a pergamene often was re-used by scraping the previous writing
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Villa Of The Papyri
Coordinates: 40°48′28″N 14°20′40″E / 40.8078°N 14.3445°E / 40.8078; 14.3445 The Villa of the Papyri
Villa of the Papyri
(Italian: Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni), is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and in the Roman world.[1] Its luxury is shown by its exquisite architecture and by the very large number of outstanding works of art discovered, including frescoes, bronzes and marble sculpture[2] which constitute the largest collection of Greek and Roman sculptures ever discovered in a single context.[3] It is located in the current commune of Ercolano, southern Italy. It was situated on the ancient coastline below the volcano Vesuvius
Vesuvius
with nothing to obstruct the view of the sea
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