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Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Neanderthal Man
Homo
Homo
mousteriensis[1] Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis[2] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
(UK: /niˈændərˌtɑːl/, also US: /neɪ-, -ˈɑːn-, -ˌtɔːl, -ˌθɔːl/),[3][4] more rarely known as Neandertals,[a] were archaic humans that became extinct about 40,000 years ago.[8][9][10][11][12][13] They seem to have appeared in Europe and later expanded into Southwest, Central and Northern Asia. There, they left hundreds of stone tool assemblages. Almost all of those younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian
Mousterian
techno-complex, which is characterised by tools made out of stone flakes.[14] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
are considered either a distinct species, Homo neanderthalensis,[15][16][17] or more rarely[18] a subspecies of Homo sapiens (H. s
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world
Islamic

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Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
(al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III; Arabic: الحكم الثاني ابن عبد الرحمن‎) (January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was the second Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
of Córdoba, in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
(al-Nasir) and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976.Contents1 Early rule 2 Patron of knowledge 3 Construction projects 4 Military conflict in North Africa 5 Personal life 6 Death and succession 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly rule[edit]Dinar of al-Hakam II c. 969 AD Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
succeeded to the Caliphate after the death of his father Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
in 961
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Dhimmi
A dhimmī (Arabic: ذمي‎ ḏimmī, IPA: [ˈðɪmmiː], collectively أهل الذمة ahl ul-ḏimmah/dhimmah "the people of the dhimma") is a historical[1] term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state
Islamic state
with legal protection.[1][2]:470 The word literally means "protected person".[3] According to scholars, dhimmis had their rights fully protected in their communities, but as citizens in the Islamic state, had certain restrictions,[4] and it was obligatory for them to pay the jizya tax, which complemented the zakat, or alms, paid by the
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Reconquista
The Reconquista[a] (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad
Umayyad
conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada
Granada
to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Tartessos
Tartessos
Tartessos
(Greek: Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, Tarshish in (Hebrew: תַּרְשִׁישׁ‎) was a semi-mythical[1] harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC
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List Of Postal Codes In Spain
Postal codes were introduced and standardized in Spain in 1985, when Correos
Correos
(the national postal service of Spain) introduced automated mail sorting
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Carthaginian
Carthage
Carthage
(/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/, from Latin: Carthago; Phoenician: Qart-ḥadašt ("New city")) was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis
Tunis
in what is now the Tunis Governorate
Tunis Governorate
in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.[1] The legendary Queen Dido
Dido
is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide
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Hamilcar Barca
Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (c. 275 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid
Barcid
family, and father of Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago. He was also father-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair. The name Hamilcar (Punic-Phoenician ḥmlqrt, "brother of Melqart") was a common name for Carthaginian men. The name brq (or baraq) means "thunderbolt" in the Punic language and is thus equivalent to the epithet or cognomen Keraunos, common among many contemporary Greek commanders, and the Biblical general Barak.[1] Hamilcar commanded the Carthaginian land forces in Sicily
Sicily
from 247 BC to 241 BC, during the latter stages of the First Punic War. He kept his army intact and led a successful guerrilla war against the Romans in Sicily. Hamilcar retired to Carthage
Carthage
after the peace treaty in 241 BC, following the defeat of Carthage
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Juba I Of Numidia
Juba I of Numidia (c. 85–46 BC, reigned 60–46 BC) was a king of Numidia. He was the son and successor to Hiempsal II.Contents1 Family 2 Biography 3 Sources 4 Notes and referencesFamily[edit] Juba I was the father of King of Numidia and later Mauretania, Juba II (50/52 BC – 23), father-in-law of Juba II’s wives Greek Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II (40 BC – 6 BC), Cappodocian princess Glaphyra and paternal grandfather to King Ptolemy of Mauretania (1 BC – 40 AD) and the princess Drusilla of Mauretania the Elder (born 5 AD). Biography[edit]Juba I's bustCoin portraying Juba IIn 81 BC Hiempsal had been driven from his throne; soon afterwards, Pompey was sent to Africa by Sulla to reinstate him as king in Numidia, and because of this Hiempsal and later Juba became Pompey’s ally
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