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Butte
A butte (/bjuːt/) is an isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; buttes are smaller than mesas, plateaus, and table landforms. The word butte comes from a French word meaning "small hill"; its use is prevalent in the Western United States, including the southwest where "mesa" is also used for the larger landform. Because of their distinctive shapes, buttes are frequently landmarks in plains and mountainous areas. In differentiating mesas and buttes, geographers use the rule of thumb that a mesa has a top that is wider than its height, while a butte has a top that is narrower than its height.[1] Notable buttes[edit] The Mitten Buttes of Monument Valley
Monument Valley
in Arizona
Arizona
are two of the most distinctive and widely recognized buttes
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Igneous Rock
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Weathering
Weathering
Weathering
is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms. Weathering
Weathering
occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure
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Rock (geology)
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Courthouse Rock
Courthouse and Jail Rocks
Courthouse and Jail Rocks
are two rock formations located near Bridgeport in the Nebraska Panhandle. The Oregon-California Trail, the Mormon Trail, the Pony Express
Pony Express
Trail and the Sidney-Deadwood Trail all ran near the rocks. The pair of rock formations served as a landmark along the trails for many pioneers traveling west in the 19th century. Many travelers would stray as much as five miles (8 km) from the Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
just to get a glimpse of the rocks. Hundreds of westward-bound emigrants mentioned Courthouse Rock (originally also McFarlan's Castle) in their travel logs and journals. The name "Courthouse" was first used in 1837.[3] In 1845, one traveler described the rock as "resembling the ruins of an old castle [which] rises abruptly from the plain....It is difficult to look upon it and not believe that art had something to do with its construction
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Scree
Scree
Scree
is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces. Landforms associated with these materials are often called talus deposits. Talus deposits typically have a concave upwards form, while the maximum inclination corresponds to the angle of repose of the mean debris size. The term scree comes from the Old Norse
Old Norse
term for landslide, skriða,[1] while the term talus is a French word meaning a slope or embankment.[2][3] Formation[edit]Talus cones on north shore of Isfjord, Svalbard, Norway.Formation of scree or talus deposits are the result of physical and chemical weathering and erosion acting on a rock face. The predominant processes that degrade a rock slope depend largely on the regional climate (temperature, amount of rainfall, etc.)
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Hoodoo (geology)
A hoodoo (also called a tent rock, fairy chimney or earth pyramid) is a tall, thin spire of rock that protrudes from the bottom of an arid drainage basin or badland. Hoodoos, which may range from 1.5 to 45 metres (4.9 to 147.6 ft), typically consist of relatively soft rock topped by harder, less easily eroded stone that protects each column from the elements. They generally form within sedimentary rock and volcanic rock formations.[citation needed] Hoodoos are found mainly in the desert in dry, hot areas. In common usage, the difference between hoodoos and pinnacles (or spires) is that hoodoos have a variable thickness often described as having a "totem pole-shaped body". A spire, on the other hand, has a smoother profile or uniform thickness that tapers from the ground upward. An example of a single spire, as an earth pyramid, is found at Aultderg Burn, near Fochabers, Scotland. Hoodoos range in size from the height of an average human to heights exceeding a 10-story building
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Sedona, Arizona
Sedona /sɪˈdoʊnə/ is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley
Verde Valley
region of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031.[4] Sedona's main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations. The formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun
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Kachaghakaberd
Kachaghakaberd
Kachaghakaberd
(Armenian: Կաչաղակաբերդ, Azerbaijani: Qaxaç qalası) is a mountain-top fortress in the Martakert Province of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
within Azerbaijan, where it lies in the Tartar Rayon.[1]Contents1 Architecture 2 Etymology 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 ReferencesArchitecture[edit] The fortress was an important fortification of the medieval Armenian Principality of Khachen
Principality of Khachen
that thrived in the High Middle Ages [2] and is located at a height of more than 1700 meters, surrounded by vertical limestone cliffs with the heights of 50–60 meters, has a hard-to-reach entrance from the southern side of the fortress. During its history no one could ever storm the fortress. Parts of the defensive walls remain standing.[3] The territory of the fortress occupies a large area, though it seems small
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Khojaly District
Khojali (Azerbaijani: Xocalı), also called Khojaly, Khodjaly and Hojaly, is a rayon in the Nagorno-Karabakh break away region of Azerbaijan, now under de facto control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Its capital is Khojali. The region was once a site of prehistoric Khojaly-Gadabay culture. It was the location of the Khojaly Massacre in February 1992. It is coterminous with Astsakh's Askeran Province.Contents1 Neighbour regions 2 History 3 Geography 4 Historical and cultural monuments 5 List of the historical and cultural monuments of Khojaly 6 Notable figures6.1 National Heroes7 See also 8 ReferencesNeighbour regions[edit] Lachin, Kalbajar, Agdam, Shusha and Khojavend. History[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Caprock
Caprock
Caprock
or cap rock is a harder or more resistant rock type overlying a weaker or less resistant rock type.[1] Common types of caprock are sandstone and mafic rock types. An analogy of caprock could be the outer crust on a cake that is a bit harder than the underlying layer. Common caprock locations are escarpments, mesa formations, and salt domes. In the petroleum industry, caprock is generalized to any nonpermeable formation that may prevent oil, gas, or water from migrating to the surface. Contents1 Description 2 Petroleum 3 Salt dome
Salt dome
caprock 4 See also 5 ReferencesDescription[edit]Horseshoe Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment Caprock
Caprock
is a harder or more resistant rock type overlying a weaker or less resistant rock type.[1] Common types of caprock are sandstone and mafic rock types
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Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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John Ford
John Ford
John Ford
(February 1, 1894 – August 31, 1973) was an American film director. He is renowned both for Westerns such as Stagecoach (1939), The Searchers
The Searchers
(1956), and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
(1962), as well as adaptations of classic 20th-century American novels such as the film The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1940). His four Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for Best Director (in 1935, 1940, 1941, and 1952) remain a record
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