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Business
Business
Business
is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling goods or services.[1][2][3][4] Simply put, it is any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors.[5] The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or public officials) to refer to a company, but this article will not deal with that sense of the word.Anyone carrying on an activity that earns them a profit is doing business or running a business, and perhaps this is why there is a misconception that business and company is the same thing. A business name structure does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for all debts incurred by the business
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Firm (other)
A firm is a business. Firm
Firm
or The Firm
Firm
may also refer to:Contents1 Literature 2 Film and television 3 Music3.1 Bands 3.2 Albums4 Organizations 5 Ships 6 Other uses 7 People with the surname 8 See alsoLiterature[edit]The
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Holding Company
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States, 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed.[1] That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially transferring cash from one company to the other
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Cayman Islands Company Law
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
company law is primarily codified in the Companies Law (2016 Revision) and the Limited Liability Companies Law, 2016,[1] and to a lesser extent in the Securities and Investment Business Law (2015 Revision). The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a leading Offshore Financial Centre, and financial services forms a significant part of the economy of the Cayman Islands
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European Corporate Law
European corporate law
European corporate law
is a part of European Union
European Union
law, which concerns the formation, operation and insolvency of corporations in the European Union. There is no substantive European company law as such, although a host of minimum standards are applicable to companies throughout the European Union. All member states continue to operate separate companies acts, which are amended from time to time to comply with EU Directives and Regulations
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Societas Unius Personae
A societas unius personae (SUP; single-person company) is a legal form for a single-member private limited liability company proposed by the European Commission. See also[edit]European corporate lawSocietas Europaea Societas cooperativa Europaea Societas privata EuropaeaExternal links[edit]2014 Memo by the Commissionv t e European corporate forms Societas Europaea
Societas Europaea
(SE) Societas privata Europa
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European Economic Interest Grouping
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law
European corporate law
created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.[1] It is designed to make it easier for companies in different countries to do business together, or to form consortia to take part in EU programmes. Its activities must be ancillary to those of its members, and, as with a partnership, any profit or loss it makes is attributed to its members. Thus, although it is liable for VAT
VAT
and employees’ social insurance, it is not liable to corporation tax. It has unlimited liability. It was based on the pre-existing French groupement d´intérêt économique (G.i.e.). Several thousand EEIGs now exist, active in fields as varied as agricultural marketing, legal advice, research and development, osteopathy, motorcycle preservation[citation needed] and cat-breeding[citation needed]
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German Company Law
German company law
German company law
(Gesellschaftsrecht) is an influential legal regime for companies in Germany. The primary form of company is the public company or Aktiengesellschaft
Aktiengesellschaft
(AG). A private company with limited liability is known as a Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
(GmbH). A partnership is called a Kommanditgesellschaft
Kommanditgesellschaft
(KG).Contents1 History 2 Aktiengesellschaft2.1 Shareholder rights 2.2 Directors’ duties 2.3 Derivative litigation 2.4 Corporate governance 2.5 Employees 2.6 Directors3 Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung 4 Kommanditgesellschaft 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] In Germany, through most of the 19th century the Kommanditgesellschaft (société en commandite in France) was the typical form of business organisation
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French Company Law
French company law
French company law
is the law governing corporations incorporated in France
France
or under French corporate law. History[edit] In the wake of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in 1791, the right to free registration for all private companies was proclaimed. There was a boom in registrations, but this was followed by a bust in 1793. The law was reversed until 1796 when the principle of free incorporation was established again. The law was consolidated in Napoleon's Code de commerce of 1807 using a concession system. While previously public companies with special privileges were created by a special act of the state, the Code allowed the companies to be formed according to general company law rules. Specific state permission was still required
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Charitable Incorporated Organisation
A charitable incorporated organisation (CIO) is a new form of legal entity designed for non-profit organisations in the United Kingdom. The main intended benefits of the new entity are that it has legal personality, the ability to conduct business in its own name, and limited liability so that its members and trustees will not have to contribute in the event of financial loss. These are already available to limited companies; charities can be formed as companies, but then they must be registered with both Companies House
Companies House
and the Charity Commission. In contrast, the CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission. This is expected to reduce bureaucracy for the charity.[1] The CIO status became available to charities in England and Wales on 4 March 2013
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Proprietary Company
A proprietary company is a form of privately held company in Australia and South Africa
South Africa
that is either limited or unlimited. However, unlike a public company there are, depending on jurisdiction, restrictions on what it can and cannot do. In Australia, a proprietary company is defined under section 45A(1) of the Corporations Act 2001
Corporations Act 2001
(Cth).[1] The Act puts certain restrictions on proprietary companies such as not permitting them to have more than 50 members (shareholders). Another important restriction relates to fundraising. A proprietary company must not engage in fundraising that would require a disclosure document such as a prospectus, an offer information statement, or a profile statement to be issued (sec.113(3)). The Act states in which circumstances a company must issue a prospectus when attempting to raise funds
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Private Company Limited By Shares
A private company limited by shares is a class of private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, Scotland, certain Commonwealth countries, and the Republic of Ireland. It has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general public, unlike those of a public limited company (plc). "Limited by shares" means that the liability of the shareholders to creditors of the company is limited to the capital originally invested, i.e. the nominal value of the shares and any premium paid in return for the issue of the shares by the company. A shareholder's personal assets are thus protected in the event of the company's insolvency, but any money invested in the company may be lost. A limited company may be "private" or "public". A private limited company's disclosure requirements are lighter, but its shares may not be offered to the general public and therefore cannot be traded on a public stock exchange
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C Corporation
A C corporation, under United States federal income tax law, refers to any corporation that is taxed separately from its owners. A C corporation is distinguished from an S corporation, which generally is not taxed separately. Most major companies (and many smaller companies) are treated as C corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. C corporations and S corporations both enjoy limited liability, but only C corporations are subject to corporate income taxation.[1]Contents1 C corporation
C corporation
vs. S corporation 2 Forming a corporation 3 Financial statements 4 Distributions 5 Tax
Tax
rates 6 Notes and references 7 See also C corporation
C corporation
vs
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Indian Company Law
Indian company law
Indian company law
regulates the corporations formed under the Section 2(20) Indian Companies Act 2013. " Company
Company
means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous Company
Company
Law"Contents1 History 2 Incorporation 3 Types of companies 4 Corporate governance4.1 Company
Company
constitutions 4.2 Governance of the board 4.3 Employee rights 4.4 Directors' duties 4.5 Corporate social responsibility5 Enforcement 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Societas Privata Europaea
A European Private Company
Company
(Latin: societas privata Europaea, SPE) is a legal form for a limited liability company that is being proposed by the European Commission
European Commission
to be introduced across the European Union. It forms a company of limited liability, similar to the English limited company, the Austrian or the German GmbH, the Dutch BV, the Belgian BVBA
BVBA
or the French SARL
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South African Company Law
South African company law
South African company law
is that body of rules which regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act.[1] A company is a business organisation which earns income by the production or sale of goods or services
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