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Burun Languages
The Burun languages are a branch of the Nilotic
Nilotic
languages. They include:North Burun (Maiak, Kurmuk, Burun proper) South Burun (Mabaan, Ulu, Jumjum)The languages were first described by Edward E. Evans-Pritchard
Edward E. Evans-Pritchard
in 1932. They are a dialect chain, close enough for some mutual intelligibility between neighboring varieties. Most classifications include the family within the Western Nilotic branch, these include Starostin (2015),[2][3] Hammarström et al. (2016)[4] and Bender (2000). Blench (2012) classifies the family as a primary branch of Nilotic.[5] References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Burun". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Starostin, George (2015). Языки Африки
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,111 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Dialect Chain
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible. That happens, for example, across large parts of India
India
(the Indo-Aryan languages) or the Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic). Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal, southern Belgium (Wallonia) and southern Italy
Italy
(Western Romance languages) and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
(German dialects). Leonard Bloomfield used the name dialect area.[1] Charles F
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Nilo-saharan Languages
The Nilo- Saharan languages
Saharan languages
are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile
Nile
rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile
Nile
meet
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Old Nubian Language
Old Nubian is an ancient variety of Nubian, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century (the most recent known text was written in 1485). It is ancestral to modern-day Nobiin and related to other Nubian languages
Nubian languages
such as Dongolawi. It was used throughout the medieval Christian kingdom of Makuria
Makuria
and its satellite Nobadia
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Nubian Languages
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Roger Blench
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist. He has an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and remains based in Cambridge, England. He actively researches and publishes, although he works as a private consultant rather than in academia. A noted expert in African linguistics,[1] Blench's main area of linguistic interest is the Niger–Congo language family
Niger–Congo language family
although he has also researched the Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
and Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
families. He has also written about other language families and endangered languages. Additionally, Blench has published extensively on the relationship between linguistics and archaeology, principally in Africa, but more recently also in East Asia
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Lionel Bender (linguist)
Marvin Lionel Bender
Lionel Bender
(August 18, 1934 – February 19, 2008) was an American author and linguist.Contents1 Life 2 Career 3 Works 4 NotesLife[edit]M. Lionel Bender
Lionel Bender
in 2004Bender was born August 18, 1934, in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. He travelled throughout the world, particularly in Northeast Africa, and was an accomplished chess player. Dr. Bender died of complications from a stroke and brain hemorrhage on February 19, 2008 in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Career[edit] Bender wrote and co-wrote several books, publications and essays on the Languages of Africa, particularly those spoken in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Sudan, A major contributor to Ethiopian Studies. He did extensive work on the Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan languages
Nilo-Saharan languages
spoken locally. Together with J. Donald Bowen, Robert L
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Georgiy Starostin
Georgiy Sergeevich "George" Starostin (Russian: Гео́ргий Серге́евич Ста́ростин; born 4 July 1976)[1] is a Russian linguist who presides the Center of Comparative Studies at the Russian State University for the Humanities. He is an active participant of the Santa Fe Institute's Evolution of Human Languages project
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Edward E. Evans-Pritchard
Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, FBA (21 September 1902 – 11 September 1973), known as E. E. Evans-Pritchard, was an English anthropologist who was instrumental in the development of social anthropology. He was Professor of Social Anthropology
Anthropology
at the University of Oxford
Oxford
from 1946 to 1970.Contents1 Education and field work 2 Later theories 3 Life and family 4 Honours 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 References 9 External linksEducation and field work[edit] Evans-Pritchard was educated at Winchester College
Winchester College
and studied history at Exeter College, Oxford, where he was influenced by R. R. Marett, and then as a postgraduate at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
(LSE)
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Nilotic
The Nilotic
Nilotic
peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile
Nile
Valley who speak Nilotic
Nilotic
languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages
Nilo-Saharan languages
spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.[1] In a more general sense, the Nilotic
Nilotic
peoples include all descendants of the original Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
speakers
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Kacipo-Balesi Language
The Baale language, Baleesi or Baalesi, is an Eastern Sudanic language of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and South Sudan, spoken by the Baale or Zilmamo people of Ethiopia, and by the Kachepo of South Sudan.[3] It is a member of the Surmic cluster and is also known as Suri, evoking an ethnonym that embraces the Tirma, Chai (or T'id), and Baale communities.[3][4] There are currently 9,000 native speakers of Baleesi, 5,000 in South Sudan and 4,100 in Ethiopia; almost all of these are monolingual.[1]Contents1 General information 2 Speakers2.1 Culture3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksGeneral information[edit] Baleesi can be alternately referred to as Baalesi, Baale, Bale, Baaye, Dok, Kacipo-Balesi, Kachepo, Silmamo, Tsilmano, Zelmamu, Zilmamu and Zulmamu.[3][4][1]"The Baale call their language Baalesi
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Kwegu Language
Kwegu (also Bacha, Koegu, Kwegi, Menja, Nidi) is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language, spoken in the Southwest of Ethiopia, on the west bank of the Omo River. Bibliography[edit]^ Kwegu at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kwegu". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Hieda, Osamu. 1998. "A sketch of Koegu grammar: Towards reconstructing Proto-Southeastern Surmic" in Gerrit Dimmendaal and Marco Last (eds.), Surmic Languages and Cultures. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag
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