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Burgundian Circle
The Burgundian Circle
Burgundian Circle
(German: Burgundischer Kreis, Dutch: Bourgondische Kreits, French: Cercle de Bourgogne) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548
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Tubanti
The Tubantes were a Germanic tribe, living in the eastern part of The Netherlands, north of the Rhine
Rhine
river. They are often equated to the Tuihanti, who are known from two inscriptions found near Hadrian's Wall. The modern name Twente
Twente
derives from the word Tuihanti.Contents1 History 2 Archeology 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Little is known about the Tubantes
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Frankish Kingdom
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
(Latin: Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire
Empire
was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks
Franks
during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. The core Frankish territories inside the Roman empire
Roman empire
were close to the Rhine
Rhine
and Maas rivers in the north. After a period where small kingdoms inter-acted with the remaining Gallo-Roman institutions to their south, a single kingdom uniting them was founded by Clovis I
Clovis I
who was crowned King of the Franks
Franks
in 496
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Cananefates
The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters",[1] were a Germanic tribe,[2] who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Batavia (later Betuwe), in the Roman province of Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior
(now in the Dutch province of Zuid-Holland), before and during the Roman conquest. Apparently, the name had its origins in the fact that the Cananefates lived on sandy soils that were considered excellent for growing Alliums such as leeks and onions.[3] At the beginning of the Batavian rebellion
Batavian rebellion
under Gaius Julius Civilis in the year 69, the Batavians sent envoys to the Canninefates to urge a common policy
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Chamavi
The Chamavi
Chamavi
were a Germanic tribe
Germanic tribe
of Roman imperial times whose name survived into the Early Middle Ages. They first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania
Germania
of Tacitus
Tacitus
as a Germanic tribe
Germanic tribe
that lived to the north of the Lower Rhine. Their name probably survives in the region today called Hamaland, which is in the Gelderland
Gelderland
province of the Netherlands, between the IJssel
IJssel
and Ems rivers.Contents1 Etymology 2 Location and historical mentions 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesEtymology[edit] Various proposals have been made. The ending of the name is found in various Greek and Roman forms that are similar to other tribes
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Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the Netherlands. In 50 BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
during his Gallic Wars, it became one of the three main provinces of Gaul
Gaul
(known as the Tres Galliae, the other two being Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
and Gallia Lugdunensis).[1] An official Roman province
Roman province
was later created by emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 22 BC. The province was named for the Belgae, as the largest tribal confederation in the area, but also included the territories of the Treveri, Mediomatrici, Leuci, Sequani, Helvetii
Helvetii
and others
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Germania Inferior
Germania
Germania
Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province
Roman province
located on the west bank of the Rhine. According to Ptolemy (2.9), Germania Inferior included the Rhine
Rhine
from its mouth up to the mouth of the Obringa, a river identified with either the Aar
Aar
or the Moselle
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Salian Franks
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks
Franks
who first appear in the historical records in the third century.Contents1 Origins and early history 2 Etymology 3 Culture 4 History 5 Footnotes 6 ReferencesOrigins and early history[edit] Like the other Franks
Franks
in this period, the Salian Franks
Franks
were a Germanic people living near the river Rhine, which had long been a militarized border. The Salians, unlike other Franks, first appear living inside the Roman Empire, living in the Rhine
Rhine
delta in the modern Netherlands. In modern works they are frequently contrasted with their neighbours to the east, known as the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, who eventually held the Roman city of Cologne, in modern Germany
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Batavii
The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine
Rhine
delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD. The name is also applied to several military units employed by the Romans that were originally raised among the Batavi
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Frisian Kingdom
The Frisian Kingdom
Frisian Kingdom
(West Frisian Fryske Keninkryk), also known as Magna Frisia, is a modern name for the Frisian realm in the period when it was at its largest (650-734). This empire was ruled by kings and emerged in the mid-7th century and probably ended with the Battle of the Boarn in 734 when the Frisians
Frisians
were defeated by the Frankish Empire. It lay mainly in what is now the Netherlands
Netherlands
and - according to some 19th century authors - extended from the Zwin
Zwin
near Bruges
Bruges
in Belgium
Belgium
to the Weser
Weser
in Germany. The center of power was the city of Utrecht. In medieval writings, the region is designated by the Latin term Frisia. There is a dispute among historians about the extent of this realm; There is no documentary evidence for the existence of a permanent central authority
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Frisii
The Frisii
Frisii
were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta
Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta
and the River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians. The Frisii
Frisii
were among the migrating Germanic tribes that, following the breakup of Celtic Europe in the 4th century BC, settled along the North Sea. They came to control the area from roughly present-day Bremen
Bremen
to Brugge, and conquered many of the smaller offshore islands. In the 1st century BC, the Frisii
Frisii
halted a Roman advance and thus managed to maintain their independence.[1] In the Germanic pre- Migration Period
Migration Period
(i.e., before c
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Austrasia
Austrasia
Austrasia
was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the Meuse, Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
and the Moselle
Moselle
rivers, and was the original territory of the Franks, including both the so-called Salians and Rhineland
Rhineland
Franks, which Clovis I
Clovis I
conquered after first taking control of the bordering part of Roman Gaul, now northern France, which is sometimes described in this period as Neustria. In AD 567, Austrasia
Austrasia
became a separate kingdom within the Frankish kingdom and was ruled by Sigebert I
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Middle Francia
Middle Francia
Francia
(Latin: Francia
Francia
media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
resulted in division of the united empire. Middle Francia
Francia
was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious
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West Francia
In medieval historiography, West Francia
Francia
(Latin: Francia
Francia
occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks
Franks
(regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks
Franks
that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987. West Francia
Francia
was formed out of the division of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
in 843 under the Treaty of Verdun[1] after the death of Emperor Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
and the east–west division which "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms (...) of what we can begin to call Germany and France."[2] West Francia
Francia
extended further south than modern France, but it did not extend as far east
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Lotharingia
Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(Germany), Saarland
Saarland
(Germany), and Lorraine (France)
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