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Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500Republic of Bulgaria Република България  (Bulgarian) Republika BǎlgariyaFlagCoat of armsMotto: Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian) "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration) "Unity makes strength"Anthem:  Мила Родино  (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino  (transliteration) Dear MotherlandLocation of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Sofia 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317Official languages BulgarianOfficial script CyrillicEthnic groups (2011[1])84.8% Bulgarians 8.8% Turks 4.9% Roma 1.5% othersReligion Bulgarian O
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Official Script
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions. Akin to an official language, an official script is much rarer. It is used primarily where an official language is in practice written with two or more scripts. As, in these languages, use of script often has cultural or political connotations, proclamation of an official script is sometimes criticised as having a goal of influencing culture or politics or both. Desired effects also may include easing education, communication and some other aspects of life.Contents1 List of official scripts 2 Historical 3 See also 4 ReferencesList of official scripts[edit] Below is a partial list of official scripts used in different countries
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Ethnic Groups
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power. Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market. The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq
for the UNDP.[1][2] The 2010 Human Development Report
Human Development Report
introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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Gini Coefficient
In economics, the Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
(/ˈdʒiːni/ JEE-nee; sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian: Variabilità e mutabilità).[1][2] The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Constitutional Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Unitary State
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute, the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers. The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is an example of a unitary state
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List Of Countries And Territories By Population Density
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer. The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories based upon the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. The list also includes but does not rank unrecognized but de facto independent countries. The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Figures used in this article are mainly based on the latest censuses and official estimates (or projections)
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Eastern European Time
Eastern European Time
Eastern European Time
(EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
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Parliamentary System
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government
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