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Building Material
BUILDING MATERIAL is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings . Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , insulation , plumbing , and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes
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Labor Rights
LABOR RIGHTS or WORKERS\' RIGHTS are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers , usually obtained under labor and employment law . In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions . One of the most central of these rights is the right to unionize . Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. Labor rights can also take in the form of worker\'s control and worker\'s self management in which workers have a democratic voice in decision and policy making. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work
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Mohave People
MOHAVE or MOJAVE (Mojave : 'AHA MAKHAV) are a Native American people indigenous to the Colorado River
Colorado River
in the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
. The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation includes territory within the borders of California
California
, Arizona
Arizona
, and Nevada
Nevada
. The Colorado River
Colorado River
Indian Reservation includes parts of California
California
and Arizona
Arizona
and is shared by members of the Chemehuevi
Chemehuevi
, Hopi
Hopi
, and Navajo peoples . The original Colorado River
Colorado River
and Fort Mojave reservations were established in 1865 and 1870, respectively. Both reservations include substantial senior water rights in the Colorado River; water is drawn for use in irrigated farming
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Branches
A BRANCH (UK : /ˈbrɑːntʃ/ or UK : /ˈbræntʃ/ , US : /ˈbræntʃ/ ) or TREE BRANCH (sometimes referred to in botany as a RAMUS) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub ). Large branches are known as BOUGHS and small branches are known as TWIGS. Due to a broad range of species of trees, branches and twigs can be seen in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal , vertical , or diagonal , the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches. The term "twig " often refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk. CONTENTS* 1 Words * 1.1 Specific terms * 1.2 History and etymology * 2 See also * 3 References WORDSBecause of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them
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Pygmy Peoples
A PYGMY is a member of an ethnic group whose average height is unusually short; anthropologists define pygmy as a member of any group where adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches) tall. A member of a slightly taller group is termed "pygmoid". The term is most associated with peoples of Central Africa
Central Africa
, such as the Aka , Efé and Mbuti
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Fair Trade
FAIR TRADE is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainable farming. Members of the movement advocate the payment of higher prices to exporters, as well as improved social and environmental standards. The movement focuses in particular on commodities, or products which are typically exported from developing countries to developed countries , but also consumed in domestic markets (e.g. Brazil, India
India
and Bangladesh) most notably handicrafts , coffee , cocoa , wine , sugar, fresh fruit , chocolate , flowers and gold . The movement seeks to promote greater equity in international trading partnerships through dialogue, transparency, and respect. It promotes sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers in developing countries
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Embodied Energy
EMBODIED ENERGY is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or 'embodied' in the product itself. The concept can be useful in determining the effectiveness of energy-producing or energy-saving devices, or the "real" replacement cost of a building, and, because energy-inputs usually entail greenhouse gas emissions, in deciding whether a product contributes to or mitigates global warming . One fundamental purpose for measuring this quantity is to compare the amount of energy produced or saved by the product in question to the amount of energy consumed in producing it
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Household Hardware
HOUSEHOLD HARDWARE (or simply, HARDWARE) is equipment that can be touched or held by hand such as nuts , screws , washers , keys , locks , hinges , latches , handles , wire , chains , belts , plumbing supplies, electrical supplies, tools , utensils , cutlery and machine parts. Household hardware is typically sold in hardware stores
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Ecological Economics
ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS (also called ECO-ECONOMICS, ECOLONOMY or BIOECONOMICS of Georgescu-Roegen ) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems , both intertemporally and spatially. By treating the economy as a subsystem of Earth's larger ecosystem, and by emphasizing the preservation of natural capital , the field of ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS is differentiated from environmental economics , which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment. One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought , with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted by human-made capital (see the section on Weak versus strong sustainability below)
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Sustainable Development
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desirable end result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural systems. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report , it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development , social development and environmental protection for future generations
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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American beaver †C. californicus Distribution of C. fiber. Distribution of C. canadensis. Fossils of C. californicusThe BEAVER (genus CASTOR) is a large, primarily nocturnal , semiaquatic rodent . Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver
Eurasian beaver
(Castor fiber) ( Eurasia
Eurasia
). Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara ). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Wikiup
A WIGWAM, WICKIUP or WETU is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations
First Nations
tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes. The term wickiup is generally used to label these kinds of dwellings in the Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States
and Western United States , while wigwam is usually applied to these structures in the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
and Canada. Wetu is the Wampanoag term for a wigwam dwelling. These terms can refer to many distinct types of Native American structures regardless of location or cultural group. The wigwam is not to be confused with the Native Plains tipi , which has a very different construction, structure, and use
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Ice Hotel
An ICE HOTEL is a temporary hotel made up of snow and sculpted blocks of ice . Ice
Ice
hotels are dependent on sub-freezing temperatures, are constructed from ice and snow and typically have to be rebuilt every year. Ice
Ice
hotels exist in several countries, and they have varying construction styles, services and amenities, the latter of which may include ice bars , restaurants, chapels , saunas and hot tubs
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Tourist Attraction
A TOURIST ATTRACTION is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure, adventure and amusement. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Novelty attraction * 3 Tourist destination * 4 Economic Impact * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links TYPES Tropical beaches and Balinese culture are attractions that draw tourists to this popular island resort , such as Melasti rituals performed on the beach. Natural beauty such as beaches , tropical island resorts with coral reefs, hiking and camping in national parks , mountains and forests , are examples of traditional tourist attractions to spend summer vacations
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Mudbrick
A MUDBRICK is a brick , made of a mixture of loam , mud , sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw . In warm regions with very little timber available to fuel a kiln , bricks were generally sun dried. In some cases brickmakers extended the life of mud bricks by putting fired bricks on top or covering them with stucco . CONTENTS * 1 Adobe
Adobe
* 2 Banco * 3 Ancient world * 4 Mudbrick
Mudbrick
architecture worldwide * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ADOBE Main article: Adobe
Adobe
In areas of Spanish influence, mud-brick construction is called adobe , and developed over time into a complete system of wall protection, flat roofing and finishes which in modern English usage is often referred to as adobe style, regardless of the construction method
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Light Clay
LIGHT CLAY (also LIGHT STRAW CLAY, LIGHT CLAY STRAW, SLIPSTRAW) is a natural building material used to infill between a wooden frame in a timber framed building using a combination of clay and straw , woodchips or some other lighter material. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Usage * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYA mixture of clay and straw was used as an infill material for timber framed building from at least the 12th century in Germany and elsewhere in Europe. Renewed interest in traditional building methods developed from the 1980s after which various natural building architects and builders started promoting the use of light clay. USAGE Light clay
Light clay
mixture consisting of clay, water and straw before application Local clay, often local subsoil, is mixed into a slurry with water and then combined with straw or wood chip or other similar material. Wood chips can vary in size from sawdust to chip 5cm in diameter
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