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Buddhists
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Tokyo National Museum
The Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum
Museum
(東京国立博物館, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan), or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum,[2] the largest art museum in Japan
Japan
and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan. The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings (as of July 2005). The museum also conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection. The museum is located inside Ueno Park
Ueno Park
in Taitō, Tokyo
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Dharma
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Standing Buddha
The Standing Buddha
Standing Buddha
of the Tokyo National Museum
Tokyo National Museum
is a remarkable example of Greco-Buddhist statuary. Comparable ones can be found in the Musee Guimet
Musee Guimet
in France, and in the National Museum, New Delhi besides various other museums of South Asia
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Pāli Canon
The Pāli
Pāli
Canon (Pali: Tipitaka; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(IAST): Tripiṭaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli
Pāli
language.[1] It is the first known and most-complete extant early Buddhist canon.[2][3] It was composed in North India
North India
and was preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately 454 years after the death of Gautama Buddha.[a] It was composed by members of Sangha
Sangha
of each ancient major Buddhist sub-tradition. It is written in Pali, Sanskrit, and regional Asian languages.[5] It survives in various versions
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Buddhist Texts
Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism
Buddhism
spread. They can be categorized in a number of ways. The Western terms "scripture" and "canonical" are applied to Buddhism
Buddhism
in inconsistent ways by Western scholars: for example, one authority[1] refers to "scriptures and other canonical texts", while another[2] says that scriptures can be categorized into canonical, commentarial and pseudo-canonical
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Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
In Buddhism, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā (Pali; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā;[1] Skt.: bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi). In the Pali
Pali
commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali
Pali
Canon
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Tibetan Buddhist Canon
The Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist (mostly Sarvastivada) and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts.[1] The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364). The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana
Mahayana
canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: Kangyur
Kangyur
(Wylie: bka'-'gyur) or "Translated Words", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself
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Glossary Of Buddhism
Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear
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Pāramitā
Pāramitā
Pāramitā
(Sanskrit, Pali) or pāramī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali
Pali
literature makes far greater reference to pāramī.Contents1 Etymology 2 Theravāda Buddhism2.1 Canonical sources 2.2 Historicity 2.3 Traditional practice3 Mahāyāna Buddhism 4 Tibetan Buddhism 5 See also 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 Works cited7 External linksEtymology[edit] Donald S. Lopez, Jr. describes the etymology of the term:The term pāramitā, commonly translated as "perfection," has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest", "most distant", and hence "chief", "primary", "most excellent". Hence, the substantive can be rendered "excellence" or "perfection"
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Buddhist Paths To Liberation
The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist Path (magga) to liberation.[1] The classical description is the Noble Eightfold Path, described in the Sutta Pitaka. This description is preceded by even older descriptions in the Sutta Pitaka, and elaborated in the various Buddhist traditions
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Threefold Training
The Buddha
The Buddha
identified the threefold training (sikkhā)[1] as training in:higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)Contents1 In the Pali
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Buddhism. The traditional term for the canon (Chinese: 大藏經 Dàzàngjīng; Japanese: 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean: 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese: Đại tạng kinh) means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras."Contents1 Contents 2 Versions 3 Languages 4 Non-collected works 5 Translations 6 Samples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External linksContents[edit] The Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama, Vinaya
Vinaya
and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools, as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism. Versions[edit] There are many versions of the canon in East Asia
East Asia
in different places and time
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Sati (Buddhism)
Sati (in Pali;[1] Sanskrit: smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist
Buddhist
practice. It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment
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Prajñā (Buddhism)
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).Contents1 Etymology 2 Understanding in the Buddhist traditions2.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism 2.2 Mahāyāna Buddhism3 See also 4 References 5 Sources5.1 Published sources 5.2 Web-sources6 External linksEtymology[edit] Prajñā is often translated as "wisdom", but is closer in meaning to "insight", "discriminating knowledge", or "intuitive apprehension".[1]jñā can be trans
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Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
(Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist". The principle is applied in the twelve links of dependent origination doctrine in Buddhism, which describes the chain of causes which result in rebirth and dukkha (suffering). By breaking the chain, liberation from suffering can be attained. Additionally, one could be seen to reach a level of consciousness associated with ascendance.[1] Everything except nirvana (nibbana) is conditioned by Pratītyasamutpāda, asserts Buddhism
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