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Buddhist Texts
Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism
Buddhism
spread. They can be categorized in a number of ways. The Western terms "scripture" and "canonical" are applied to Buddhism
Buddhism
in inconsistent ways by Western scholars: for example, one authority[1] refers to "scriptures and other canonical texts", while another[2] says that scriptures can be categorized into canonical, commentarial and pseudo-canonical
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
(Chinese: 宣化; pinyin: Xuānhuà; literally: "proclaim and transform"; April 16, 1918 – June 7, 1995), also known as An Tzu and Tu Lun, was a monk of Chan Buddhism
Chan Buddhism
and a contributing figure in bringing Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
to the United States
United States
in the 20th century. Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
founded several institutions in the US. The Dharma Realm Buddhist Association[1] (DRBA) is a Buddhist organization with chapters in North America, Australia
Australia
and Asia. The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas (CTTB) in Ukiah, California, is one of the first Chan Buddhist monasteries in America. Venerable Master Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
founded Dharma Realm Buddhist University
Dharma Realm Buddhist University
at CTTB
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Tantras
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma puranasBrahma Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya BhavishyaVaishnava puranasVishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Vamana Kurma MatsyaShaiva puranasShiva Linga Skanda Vayu A
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Indo-Aryan Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Prakrits
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching 'Prakrit' are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi.[4] Pali, the Prakrit used in Theravada Buddhism, tends to be treated as a special exception from the variants of the Ardhamagadhi language, as Classical Sanskrit grammars do not consider it as a Prakrit per se, presumably for sectarian rather than linguistic reasons
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Magadhan
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield LusatianSouth-AsiaBMAC Yaz Gandhara graveIron AgeSteppeChernolesEuropeThraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt JastorfCaucasusColchianIndiaPainted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished WarePeoples and societiesBronze AgeAnatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Ir
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Rishi
Rishi
Rishi
(Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term that denotes an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas. Post-Vedic tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
regards the rishis as "seers", "great sadhu" or "sages" who after intense meditation (tapas) realized the supreme truth and eternal knowledge, which they composed into hymns.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 "Seer" of the Vedas 3 Rishi
Rishi
in Indonesia and Khmer temples 4 Ruesi in Cambodia, Thailand and Laos 5 Other uses 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology[edit] The word Rishi
Rishi
(Great Yogi, Phra Ruesi, Lao: ພະລືສີ, Thai: พระฤาษี) may be derived from two different meanings of the root 'rsh'. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammarians[2] derive this word from the second meaning: "to go, to move".[3] V. S
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Kuthodaw
Kuthodaw Pagoda (Burmese: ကုသိုလ်တော်‌ဘုရား, pronounced [kṵðòdɔ̀ pʰəjá]; literally Royal Merit, and formally titled Mahalawka Marazein မဟာလောကမာရဇိန်စေတီ) is a Buddhist stupa, located in Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar), that contains the world's largest book. It lies at the foot of Mandalay Hill and was built during the reign of King Mindon. The stupa itself, which is gilded above its terraces, is 188 feet (57 m) high, and is modelled after the Shwezigon Pagoda at Nyaung-U near Bagan
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Classical Tibetan
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan
Old Tibetan
period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day,[2] it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit. The phonology implied by Classical Tibetan orthography is basically identical to the phonology of Old Tibetan, but the grammar varies greatly depending on period and geographic origin of the author
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Shastras
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China)Language codesISO 639-1 koISO 639-2 korISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto KoreanLinguist Listokm Middle Korean  oko Old KoreanGlottolog kore1280[2]Linguasphere 45-AAA-aCountries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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East Asian Languages
The languages of East Asia
East Asia
belong to several distinct language families, with common features attributed to interaction. In the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Chinese varieties and languages of southeast Asia share many areal features, tending to be analytic languages with similar syllable and tone structure. In the first millennium AD, Chinese culture came to dominate east Asia. Literary Chinese
Literary Chinese
was adopted by scholars in Vietnam, Korea
Korea
and Japan, and there was a massive influx of Chinese vocabulary into these and other neighboring languages
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Manuscripts
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.[1] More recently, it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.[2] Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in book form, scrolls or in codex format
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