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Buddhist Mythology
Buddhism
Buddhism
includes a wide array of divine beings that are venerated in various ritual and popular contexts. Initially they included mainly Indian deities such as devas and yakshas , but later came to include other Asian spirits and local gods. They range from enlightened Buddhas to regional spirits adopted by Buddhists or practiced on the margins of the religion. Buddhists later also came to incorporate aspects from countries such as China and Japan into their pantheons. As such, it includes many aspects taken from other mythologies of those cultures. Saraswati
Saraswati
is a Hindu Deva from Gandhara
Gandhara
and the kami are considered to be local, Japanese bodhisattvas by many Japanese Buddhists
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Buddhist Philosophy
Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal * v * t * e Part of a series on PHILOSOPHY *
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Buddhist Meditation
BUDDHIST MEDITATION refers to the meditative practices of the Buddhism
Buddhism
religion and associated philosophy . Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana . The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism
Buddhism
are bhāvanā and jhāna/dhyāna . Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
techniques have become increasingly popular in the wider world, with many non-Buddhists taking them up for a variety of reasons. Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness , concentration , supramundane powers , tranquility , and insight
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Sati (Buddhism)
SATI (in Pali
Pali
; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: smṛti) is MINDFULNESS or AWARENESS, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya ) that forms an essential part of Buddhist
Buddhist
practice . It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment . "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path
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Prajñā (Buddhism)
PRAJñā ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) or PAññā ( Pāli ) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Understanding in the Buddhist traditions * 2.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.2 Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 5.1 Published sources * 5.2 Web-sources * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYPrajñā is often translated as "wisdom", but is closer in meaning to "insight", "discriminating knowledge", or "intuitive apprehension". * jñā can be translated as "consciousness", "knowledge", or "understanding"
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Karuṇā
KARUṇā (in both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali
Pali
) is generally translated as compassion . It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. CONTENTS* 1 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 1.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 1.2 Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2 Jainism
Jainism
* 3 Miscellaneous * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Sources * 7 External links BUDDHISM Karuṇā
Karuṇā
is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karuṇā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth
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Pāramitā
PāRAMITā ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Pali
Pali
) or PāRAMī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali
Pali
literature makes far greater reference to pāramī. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.1 Canonical sources * 2.2 Historicity * 2.3 Traditional practice * 3 Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4 Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Works cited * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY Donald S. Lopez, Jr. describes the etymology of the term: The term pāramitā, commonly translated as "perfection," has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest", "most distant", and hence "chief", "primary", "most excellent"
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Śīla
BUDDHIST ETHICS are traditionally based on what Buddhists view as the enlightened perspective of the Buddha
Buddha
, or other enlightened beings such as Bodhisattvas . The Indian term for ethics or morality used in Buddhism
Buddhism
is ŚīLA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: शील) or SīLA ( Pāli ). Śīla
Śīla
in Buddhism
Buddhism
is one of three sections of the Noble Eightfold Path , and is a code of conduct that embraces a commitment to harmony and self-restraint with the principal motivation being non-violence, or freedom from causing harm. It has been variously described as virtue, right conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept. Sīla is an internal, aware, and intentional ethical behavior, according to one's commitment to the path of liberation
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The CHINESE BUDDHIST CANON (大藏經 Dàzàngjīng) (Japanese : 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean : 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese : Đại tạng kinh) refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese , Japanese , Korean , and Vietnamese Buddhism
Buddhism
. The traditional term for this canon is Dàzàngjīng (大藏經), which means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras." CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Versions * 3 Languages * 4 Non-collected works * 5 Translations * 6 Samples * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links CONTENTSThe Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama , Vinaya and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools , as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism

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Threefold Training
The Buddha identified the THREEFOLD TRAINING (sikkhā) as training in: * higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) * higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) * higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)CONTENTS* 1 In the Pali Canon * 1.1 Similarity to threefold partition of the Noble Eightfold Path * 2 Notes * 3 Sources * 4 External links IN THE PALI CANONAccording to Theravada
Theravada
canonical texts , pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of lust, hatred, and delusion . One who is fully accomplished in this training attains Nibbana
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Three Jewels
Buddhists take REFUGE in the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
or Triple Gem, (also known as the "Three Refuges"). The Three Jewels
Three Jewels
are:  * the Buddha , the fully enlightened one * the Dharma
Dharma
, the teachings expounded by the Buddha * the Sangha , the monastic order of Buddhism
Buddhism
that practise the DharmaRefuge is common to all major schools of Buddhism. Pali
Pali
texts employ the Brahmanical motif of the triple refuge, found in Rig Veda 9.97.47, Rig Veda 6.46.9 and Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
2.22.3-4
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Buddhist Paths To Liberation
The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist Path (magga) to liberation . The classical description is the Noble Eightfold Path , described in the Sutta Pitaka. This description is preceded by even older descriptions in the Sutta Pitaka, and elaborated in the various Buddhist traditions. A number of other paths have been developed and described within the various traditions
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Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
In Buddhism, BODHIPAKKHIYā DHAMMā ( Pali
Pali
; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā; Skt. : bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā ) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi ). In the Pali
Pali
commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali
Pali
Canon . Within these seven sets of Enlightenment qualities, there is a total of thirty-seven individual qualities (sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā dhammā). These seven sets of qualities are recognized by both Theravadan and Mahayanan Buddhists as complementary facets of the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment
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Buddhist Monasticism
Buddhist
Buddhist
monasticism is one of the earliest surviving forms of organized monasticism in the history of religion. It is also one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism
Buddhism
. Monks and nuns are considered to be responsible for the preservation and dissemination of the Buddha's teaching and the guidance of Buddhist
Buddhist
lay people. CONTENTS * 1 History and development * 2 Monastic life * 3 Local variations * 3.1 Tibet
Tibet
* 3.2 East Asia * 3.3 Southeast Asia * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Further information: Sangha The order of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime between the fifth and fourth centuries BC
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Theravada
THERAVāDA ( Pali
Pali
, literally "school of the elder monks ") is a branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
as its doctrinal core. The Pali
Pali
canon is the only complete Buddhist canon which survives in a classical Indic Language , Pali
Pali
, which serves as the sacred language and lingua franca of Theravada Buddhism. Another feature of Theravada
Theravada
is its tendency to be very conservative with regard to matters of doctrine and monastic discipline. As a distinct sect, Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
developed in Sri Lanka and spread to the rest of Southeast Asia
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Schools Of Buddhism
SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM refers to the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism
Buddhism
that have existed from ancient times up to the present. The classification and nature of various doctrinal , philosophical or cultural facets or schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
is vague and has been interpreted in many different ways, often due to the sheer number (perhaps thousands) of different sects, subsects, movements, etc. that have made up or currently make up the whole of Buddhist traditions. The sectarian and conceptual divisions of Buddhist thought are part of the modern framework of Buddhist studies , as well as comparative religion in Asia
Asia

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