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Budapest Ghetto
The BUDAPEST GHETTO was a Nazi ghetto
Nazi ghetto
set up in Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary, where Jews
Jews
were forced to relocate by a decree of the Hungarian Government during the final stages of World War II
World War II
. The ghetto existed only from November 29, 1944, until January 17, 1945. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Saving the ghetto in January 1945 * 3 Memorial Wall * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe area consisted of several blocks of the old Jewish quarter which included the two main synagogues of the city, the Neolog Dohány Street Synagogue and Orthodox Kazinczy Street Synagogue. The ghetto was created on November 29, 1944, by a decree of the Royal Hungarian Government. It was surrounded by a high fence and stone wall that was guarded so that contraband could not be sneaked in, and people could not get out
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History Of The Jews In Europe
Jews
Jews
, originally Judaean Israelite
Israelite
tribes from the Levant
Levant
in Western Asia , migrated to Europe
Europe
just before the rise of the Roman Empire . A notable early event in the history of the Jews
Jews
in the Roman Empire was Pompey\'s conquest of the East beginning in 63 BCE although Alexandrian Jews
Jews
had migrated to Rome
Rome
before this event. The pre- World War II
World War II
Jewish population of Europe
Europe
is estimated to have been close to 9 million. Around 6 million Jews
Jews
were killed during the Holocaust
Holocaust
, which was followed by the emigration of much of the surviving population
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Kraków Ghetto
The KRAKóW GHETTO was one of five major, metropolitan Jewish ghettos created by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the new General Government
General Government
territory during the German occupation of Poland
Poland
in World War II. It was established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews
Polish Jews
, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life . The Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Bełżec extermination camp
Bełżec extermination camp
as well as Płaszów slave-labor camp , and Auschwitz concentration camp , 60 kilometres (37 mi) rail distance
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Rudolf Höss
RUDOLF HöSS (also Höß, HOEß or HOESS; 25 November 1901 – 16 April 1947) was a Nazi German SS - Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
(lieutenant colonel) and the longest-serving commandant of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
concentration and extermination camp in World War II. He tested and carried into effect various methods to accelerate Hitler's plan to systematically exterminate the Jewish population of Nazi-occupied Europe , known as the Final Solution
Final Solution
. On the initiative of one of his subordinates, SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
(captain) Karl Fritzsch , Höss introduced pesticide Zyklon B
Zyklon B
containing hydrogen cyanide to the killing process, thereby allowing SS soldiers at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
to kill 2,000 people every hour
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SS-Verfügungstruppe
The SS-VERFüGUNGSTRUPPE (SS-VT) (English: SS Dispositional Troops) was formed in 1934 as combat troops for the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP). They were involved in the German invasion of Poland in 1939. By 1940 these military SS units had become the nucleus of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
. On 17 August 1938 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
decreed that the SS-VT was neither a part of the police nor the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
, but military-trained men at the disposal of the Führer
Führer
. At the time of war, the SS-VT were to be placed at the disposal of the army. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Early operations * 3 Development of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
* 4 Notes * 5 References FORMATION LSSAH troops undergo a drill inspection in Berlin, November 1938
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Sturmabteilung
The STURMABTEILUNG (SA; German pronunciation: ( listen )), literally Storm Detachment , functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP). It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (Rotfrontkämpferbund) of the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD), and intimidating Slavic and Romani citizens, unionists, and Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses . The SA have been known in contemporary times as "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
's blackshirts
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Nazi Party
Hitler Youth * Deutsches Jungvolk * League of German Girls PARAMILITARY WINGS Sturmabteilung Schutzstaffel SPORTS BODY
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Theodor Eicke
World War I
World War I
World War II
World War II
* Battle of France
Battle of France
* Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
* Third Battle of Kharkov
Kharkov
† AWARDS Knight\'s Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
with Oak Leaves THEODOR EICKE (17 October 1892 – 26 February 1943) was a high-ranking commander in the SS of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. He commanded the Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
and the SS Division Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
. Eicke was one of the key figures in the establishment of concentration camps in Germany. Together with his adjutant Michael Lippert , Eicke executed SA Chief Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
during the Night of the Long Knives purge in 1934
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Odilo Globocnik
ODILO GLOBOCNIK (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. As associate of Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
, he had a leading role in Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
, which saw the murder of over one million mostly Polish Jews
Jews
during the Holocaust in Nazi extermination camps Majdanek
Majdanek
, Treblinka
Treblinka
, Sobibor
Sobibor
and Belzec
Belzec
. Historian Michael Allen described him as "the vilest individual in the vilest organization ever known"
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Riga Ghetto
The RIGA GHETTO was a small area in Maskavas Forštate , a neighborhood of Riga
Riga
, Latvia
Latvia
, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II. On October 25, 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto while the non-Jewish inhabitants were evicted. Most of the Latvian Jews (about 24,000) were killed on November 30 and December 8, 1941 in the Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
. The Nazis transported a large number of German Jews
German Jews
to the ghetto; most of them were later killed in massacres. While the Riga
Riga
Ghetto is commonly referred to as a single entity, in fact there were several "ghettos". The first was the large Latvian ghetto
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates : 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich
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List Of Nazi Ideologues
This is a list of people whose ideas became part of Nazi ideology
Nazi ideology
. The ideas, writings, and speeches of these thinkers were incorporated into what became Nazism
Nazism
, including antisemitism , eugenics , racial hygiene , the concept of the master race , and Lebensraum
Lebensraum
. The list includes people whose ideas were incorporated, even if they did not live in the Nazi era. CONTENTS * 1 Philosophers and sociologists * 2 Scientists and physicians * 3 Theologians and spiritual leaders * 4 Others * 5 Intellectuals indirectly associated with Nazism
Nazism
* 6 References PHILOSOPHERS AND SOCIOLOGISTS * Alfred Baeumler (1887–1968), German philosopher in Nazi Germany. He was a leading interpreter of Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
's philosophy as legitimizing Nazism
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Lublin Ghetto
The LUBLIN GHETTO was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany in the city of Lublin
Lublin
on the territory of General Government in occupied Poland . The ghetto inmates were mostly Polish Jews , although a number of Roma were also brought in. Set up in March 1941, the Lublin
Lublin
Ghetto was one of the first Nazi-era ghettos slated for liquidation during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland . Between mid-March and mid-April 1942 over 30,000 Jews were delivered to their deaths in cattle trucks at the Bełżec extermination camp and additional 4,000 at Majdanek
Majdanek
. For more details on this topic, see Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

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Łódź Ghetto
The ŁóDź GHETTO (German : Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews
Polish Jews
and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland. It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
after the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
. Situated in the city of Łódź
Łódź
, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau , the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing much needed war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army . The number of people incarcerated in it was augmented further by the Jews deported from the Reich territories. Because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944
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Porajmos
The ROMANI GENOCIDE or the ROMANI HOLOCAUST, also known as the PORAJMOS (Romani pronunciation: IPA: ), PHARRAJIMOS ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), or SAMUDARIPEN ("Mass killing"), was the planned and attempted effort, often described as a genocide , during World War II
World War II
by the government of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and its allies to exterminate the Romani people
Romani people
of Europe
Europe
. Under the rule of Adolf Hitler , a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
was issued on 26 November 1935, defining Gypsies as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews
Jews
. Thus, in some ways the fate of the Roma in Europe
Europe
paralleled that of the Jews
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Aktion T4
AKTION T4 (German, pronounced ) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. The name T4 is an abbreviation of Tiergartenstraße 4, a street address of the Chancellery department set up in the spring of 1940, in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten , which recruited and paid personnel associated with T4. Certain German physicians were authorized to select patients "deemed incurably sick, after most critical medical examination" and then administer to them a "mercy death" (Gnadentod). In October 1939 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized his personal physician Karl Brandt and Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler
Philipp Bouhler
to implement the programme
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