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Buckton Castle
Buckton Castle
Buckton Castle
was a medieval enclosure castle near Carrbrook, Stalybridge, Greater Manchester, England. It was surrounded by a 2.8-metre-wide (9 ft) stone curtain wall and a ditch 10 metres (33 ft) wide by 6 metres (20 ft) deep. Though it only survives as buried remains and is overgrown with heather and peat, Buckton is one of the earliest stone castles in North West England. The castle was probably built and demolished in the 12th century. The earliest surviving record of the site dates from 1360, by which time it was lying derelict. The small number of finds retrieved during archaeological investigations indicates that Buckton Castle
Buckton Castle
may not have been completed. In the 16th century, the site may have been used as a beacon for the Pilgrimage of Grace. During the 18th century, the castle was of interest to treasure hunters following rumours that gold and silver had been discovered at Buckton
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Enclosure Castle
An enclosure castle is a defended residence or stronghold, built mainly of stone, in which the principal or sole defence comprises the walls and towers, within the walls one can find the buildings associated with a mediaeval military settlement: a warden's house, barracks, kitchens, stables, a chapel, and a keep.[1] Examples include Kenilworth Castle, Clitheroe Castle
Clitheroe Castle
and Ludlow Castle. Many in England are under the protection of English Heritage, which has counted 126 examples. There are several in Ireland also, for example King John's Castle, Carlingford. History[edit] The first examples in England were constructed shortly after the Norman Conquest, as strongholds for the occupiers. Their form developed in the 12th century as the military experience gained by the crusaders was introduced into their home residences. The majority of extant examples were built in the 13th century, though a few were built in the 14th century
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Edward, The Black Prince
Edward of Woodstock, known as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376),[1][a] was the eldest son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault
Philippa of Hainault
and participated in the early years of the Hundred Years War. He died before his father and so never became king. His son, Richard II, succeeded Edward III. Edward was created Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
in 1337. He was guardian of the kingdom in his father's absence in 1338, 1340, and 1342. He was created Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in 1343 and knighted by his father at La Hogne in 1346. In 1346 Edward commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Crécy, his father intentionally leaving him to win the battle. He was named the Black Prince after the battle of Crécy, at which he was possibly accoutred in black armour. He took part in Edward III's 1349 Calais expedition
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Pipe Rolls
The Pipe rolls, sometimes called the Great rolls,[1] or the Great Rolls of the Pipe, are a collection of financial records maintained by the English Exchequer, or Treasury, and its successors. The earliest date from the 12th century, and the series extends, mostly complete, from then until 1833.[2] They form the oldest continuous series of records concerning English governance kept by the English, British and United Kingdom governments, covering a span of about 700 years. The early medieval ones are especially useful for historical study, as they are some of the earliest financial records available from the Middle Ages
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Median
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. For a data set, it may be thought of as the "middle" value. For example, in the data set 1, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 , the median is 6, the fourth largest, and also the fourth smallest, number in the sample. For a continuous probability distribution, the median is the value such that a number is equally likely to fall above or below it. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a data set in statistics and probability theory. The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean (often simply described as the "average") is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a "typical" value. For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, a mean may be skewed by a small number of extremely high or low values
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Baron
Baron
Baron
is a title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness.Contents1 Etymology 2 Continental Europe2.1 France 2.2 Germany 2.3 Italy 2.4 The Low Countries 2.5 The Nordic Countries 2.6 Russia 2.7 Spain3 The United Kingdom and Ireland3.1 History 3.2 Irish Barons 3.3 Coronet 3.4 Style of address 3.5 Scottish feudal baronies3.5.1 Chapeau and helm 3.5.2 Style of address4 Other 5 See also 6 Sources 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word baron comes from the Old French
Old French
baron, from a Late Latin
Late Latin
baro "man; servant, soldier, mercenary" (so used in Salic Law; Alemannic Law has barus in the same sense)
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County Palatine
A county palatine or palatinate[1] was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin
Latin
adjective palātīnus, "relating to the palace", from the noun palātium, "palace".[2][3] It thus implies the exercise of a quasi-royal prerogative within a county, that is to say a jurisdiction ruled by an earl, the English equivalent of a count. A duchy palatine is similar but is ruled over by a duke, a nobleman of higher precedence than an earl or count. The nobleman swore allegiance to the king yet had the power to rule the county largely independently of the king. It should therefore be distinguished from the feudal barony, held from the king, which possessed no such independent authority
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The Anarchy
The Anarchy
Anarchy
was a civil war in England
England
and Normandy
Normandy
between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order. The conflict was a succession crisis precipitated by the accidental death of William Adelin, the only legitimate son of Henry I, in 1120. Henry's attempts to install his daughter, the Empress Matilda, as his successor were unsuccessful and on Henry's death in 1135, his nephew Stephen of Blois
Stephen of Blois
seized the throne with the help of Stephen's brother, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Stephen's early reign was marked by fierce fighting with English barons, rebellious Welsh leaders and Scottish invaders
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Stephen, King Of England
Stephen (French: Étienne; c. 1092/6 – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England
King of England
from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne
Count of Boulogne
from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
from 1135 until 1144. Stephen's reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings. Stephen was born in the County of Blois
Blois
in central France; his father, Count Stephen-Henry, died while Stephen was still young, and he was brought up by his mother, Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror. Placed into the court of his uncle, Henry I of England, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands
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Revolt Of 1173–74
The Revolt of 1173–74
Revolt of 1173–74
was a rebellion against King Henry II of England
England
by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their rebel supporters. The revolt ended in failure after eighteen months; Henry's rebellious family members had to resign themselves to his continuing rule and were reconciled to him.Contents1 Background 2 The revolt 3 Aftermath 4 References 5 Further readingBackground[edit] King Henry II ruled England, Normandy, and Anjou, while his wife Queen Eleanor ruled the vast territory of Aquitaine. In 1173 Henry had four legitimate sons (from oldest to youngest): Henry, called the "Young King", Richard (later called "the Lionheart"), Geoffrey, and John "Lackland", all of whom stood to inherit some or all of these possessions
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Henry II Of England
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England
King of England
and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou
Anjou
and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
at 17
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University Of Manchester
Blue, gold, purple                                                              Affiliations Universities Research Association Sutton 30 Russell Group EUA N8 Group NWUA ACUWebsite manchester.ac.ukThe University of Manchester
Manchester
is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester
Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.[6][7] The University of Manchester
Manchester
is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late-19th century. The main campus is south of Manchester
Manchester
city centre on Oxford Road
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University Of Salford
The University of Salford, Manchester is a public research university in Salford, Greater Manchester, England, 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometres) west of Manchester city centre
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Spanish Armada
Decisive Spanish defeat[1][2][3]Militarily indecisive[4][5][6] Spanish invasion failure[7][8] Protestant propaganda victory[9][10]Belligerents Kingdom of England  Dutch Republic Iberian Union
Iberian Union
(Habsburg Spain)Commanders and leaders Lord Howard of Effingham Francis Drake John Hawkins Justinus van Nassau Duke of Medina Sidonia Juan Martínez de Recalde Duke of ParmaStrength34 warships[11] 163 armed merchant vessels (30 over 200
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Peveril Castle
yesListed Building – Grade IOfficial name Peveril Castle, Curtain Walls and fragmentary foundationsDesignated 17 April 1985Reference no. 1250966Condition Ruins Peveril Castle
Peveril Castle
(also Castleton Castle or Peak Castle)[1] is a ruined 11th-century castle overlooking the village of Castleton in the English county of Derbyshire. It was the main settlement (or caput) of the feudal barony of William Peverel, known as the Honour of Peverel,[2] and was founded some time between the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
of 1066 and its first recorded mention in the Domesday Survey
Domesday Survey
of 1086, by Peverel, who held lands in Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and Derbyshire
Derbyshire
as a tenant-in-chief of the king. The town became the economic centre of the barony
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Mossley
Mossley
Mossley
(/ˈmɒzli/) is a small town and a civil parish in Greater Manchester, England,[1] in the upper Tame Valley and the foothills of the Pennines, 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Oldham
Oldham
and 8.9 miles (14.3 km) east of Manchester. The historic counties of Lancashire, Cheshire
Cheshire
and the West Riding of Yorkshire meet in Mossley
Mossley
and local government wards and church parishes correspond to their boundaries
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