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Buchanan Point
Buchanan Point is a headland 5 km (3.1 mi) north-west of Cape Dundas and 2 km (1.2 mi) south-east of Mackintosh Cove, at the north-eastern end of Laurie Island
Laurie Island
in the South Orkney Islands of Antarctica. Etymology[edit] In 1903 the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
under William Speirs Bruce applied the name "Cape Buchanan", after J.Y. Buchanan, a member of the Challenger Expedition
Challenger Expedition
of 1872–76, to the prominent cape 6 km (3.7 mi) north-westward, which had been named "Cape Valavielle" in 1838 by a French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville. At the same time, the French name (in English form but misspelled "Cape Vallavielle") was transferred to the point now described
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Important Bird Area
An Important Bird and Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Area (IBA) is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations. IBA was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International. Currently there are over 12,000 IBAs worldwide.[1] These sites are small enough to be entirely conserved and differ in their character, habitat or ornithological importance from the surrounding habitat. In the United States the Program is administered by the National Audubon Society.[2] Often IBAs form part of a country's existing protected area network, and so are protected under national legislation. Legal recognition and protection of IBAs that are not within existing protected areas varies within different countries
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Mackintosh Cove
Mackintosh Cove (60°42′S 44°30′W / 60.700°S 44.500°W / -60.700; -44.500Coordinates: 60°42′S 44°30′W / 60.700°S 44.500°W / -60.700; -44.500) is a cove immediately southeast of Fraser Point along the north coast of Laurie Island, in the South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. It was charted in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition under William S. Bruce, and was named for Neil A. Mackintosh, then a member of the Discovery Committee zoological staff, by Discovery Investigations personnel on the Discovery II following their survey of the South Orkney Islands in 1933.[1]References[edit]^ "Mackintosh Cove". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey
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Graham Land
Coordinates: 66°00′S 63°30′W / 66.000°S 63.500°W / -66.000; -63.500Northern Graham Land
Graham Land
and the surrounding islands. 1 Antarctic Peninsula, 2 James Ross Island, 3 D'Urville Island, 4 Joinville Island, 5 Dundee Island, 6 Snow Hill Island, 7 Vega Island, 8 Seymour Island, 9 Andersson Island, 10 Paulet Island, 11 Lockyer Island, 12 Eagle Island, 13 Jonassen Island, 14 Bransfield Island, 15 Astrolabe Island, 16 Tower IslandA 1944 stamp of the Falkland Islands overprinted for use in Graham Land. Graham Land
Graham Land
is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula
Antarctic Peninsula
that lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz
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Copyright Status Of Work By The U.S. Government
A work of the United States
United States
government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties."[1] In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act,[2] such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This act only applies to U.S. domestic copyright as that is the extent of U.S. federal law. The U.S. government asserts that it can still hold the copyright to those works in other countries.[3][4] Publication of an otherwise protected work by the U.S. government does not put that work in the public domain. For example, government publications may include works copyrighted by a contractor or grantee; copyrighted material assigned to the U.S
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Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System
Geographic Names Information System
(GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States
United States
of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States
United States
Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names. The database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded
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Chinstrap Penguin
Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
antarctica Turbott, 1990 Chinstrap penguin
Chinstrap penguin
colony near Orne Harbor, Antarctic PeninsulaFront view of the headAdult with juvenilesPlay mediaChinstrap penguins trying to get onto an iceberg in AntarcticaThe chinstrap penguin ( Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
antarcticus) is a species of penguin which inhabits a variety of islands and shores in the Southern Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean
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Bird Colony
A bird colony is a large congregation of individuals of one or more species of bird that nest or roost in proximity at a particular location. Many kinds of birds are known to congregate in groups of varying size; a congregation of nesting birds is called a breeding colony. Colonial nesting birds include seabirds such as auks and albatrosses; wetland species such as herons; and a few passerines such as weaverbirds, certain blackbirds, and some swallows. A group of birds congregating for rest is called a communal roost
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BirdLife International
BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the world's largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organisations.[1] It has a membership of more than 2.5 million people and partner organizations in more than 100 countries. Major partners include Britain’s Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the Wild Bird Society of Japan, and the U.S. National Audubon Society. The group’s headquarters are located in Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International’s priorities include preventing extinction of bird species, identifying and safeguarding important sites for birds, maintaining and restoring key bird habitats, and empowering conservationists worldwide
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee
The UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee (or UK-APC) is a United Kingdom government committee, part of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, responsible for recommending names of geographical locations within the British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
(BAT) and the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI)
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Jules Dumont D'Urville
Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (French pronunciation: ​[ʒyl dymɔ̃ dyʁvil]; 23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French explorer, naval officer and rear admiral, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Antarctica. As a botanist and cartographer he left his mark, giving his name to several seaweeds, plants and shrubs, and places such as d'Urville Island.Contents1 Childhood 2 Early years in the navy 3 In the Aegean Sea 4 Voyage of La Coquille4.1 Collection5 The first voyage of Astrolabe 6 The second voyage of Astrolabe6.1 First contact with Antarctica 6.2 The Pacific 6.3 Turning south 6.4 Return to France7 Death and legacy 8 See also 9 References 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External linksChildhood[edit] Dumont was born at Condé-sur-Noireau
Condé-sur-Noireau
in Lower Normandy
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Challenger Expedition
The Challenger expedition
Challenger expedition
of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. The expedition was named after the mother vessel, HMS Challenger. Prompted by Charles Wyville Thomson—of the University of Edinburgh and Merchiston Castle School—the Royal Society of London
Royal Society of London
obtained the use of Challenger from the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and in 1872 modified the ship for scientific tasks, equipping her with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry. The expedition, led by Captain George Nares, sailed from Portsmouth, England, on 21 December 1872.[1] Other naval officers included Commander John Maclear.[2] Under the scientific supervision of Thomson himself, she traveled nearly 70,000 nautical miles (130,000 km) surveying and exploring
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William Speirs Bruce
William Speirs Bruce
William Speirs Bruce
FRSE (1 August 1867 – 28 October 1921) was a Scottish naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
(SNAE, 1902–04) to the South Orkney Islands
South Orkney Islands
and the Weddell Sea. Among other achievements, the expedition established the first permanent weather station in Antarctica
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Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
The Scottish National Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition (SNAE), 1902–04, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh. Although overshadowed in prestige terms by Robert Falcon Scott's concurrent Discovery Expedition, the SNAE completed a full programme of exploration and scientific work. Its achievements included the establishment of a manned meteorological station, the first in Antarctic
Antarctic
territory, and the discovery of new land to the east of the Weddell Sea
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