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Bucchero
Bucchero
Bucchero
(Italian pronunciation: [bukkero]) is a class of ceramics produced in central Italy by the region's pre-Roman Etruscan population. This Italian word is derived from the Latin poculum, a drinking-vessel, perhaps through the Spanish búcaro, or the Portuguese púcaro.[1] Regarded as the "national" pottery of ancient Etruria, bucchero ware is distinguished by its black fabric as well as glossy, black surface achieved through the unique "reduction" method in which it was fired. After the leather-hard unfired ware was arranged in the kiln and the fire started, the vent holes were closed, thus reducing the supply of oxygen required in a normal kiln firing. In the smoke-filled atmosphere of the kiln, the oxygen-starved flames drew oxygen molecules from the iron oxide of the pottery
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Oinochoe
An oenochoe, also spelled oinochoe (Ancient Greek: οἰνοχόη; from Ancient Greek: οἶνος oînos, "wine" and Ancient Greek: wikt:χέω khéō, "I pour"; plural oenochoai or oinochoai), is a wine jug and a key form of ancient Greek pottery. There are many different forms of oenochoe; Sir John Beazley
John Beazley
distinguished ten types. The earliest is the olpe (ὀλπή, olpḗ), with no distinct shoulder and usually a handle rising above the lip. The "type 8 oenochoe" is what one would call a mug, with no single pouring point and a slightly curved profile. The chous (χοῦς; pl. choes) was a squat rounded form, with trefoil mouth. Small examples with scenes of children, as in the example illustrated, were placed in the graves of children.[1] Oenochoai may be decorated or undecorated.[2] Oenochoai typically have only one handle at the back and may include a trefoil mouth and pouring spout
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Phoenicia
Coordinates: 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111Phoeniciaknʿn / kanaʿan  (Phoenician) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē  (Greek)1500 BC[1]–539 BCMap of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routesCapital Not specifiedLanguages Phoenician, PunicReligion Canaanite religionGovernment City-states ruled by kingsWell-known kings of Phoenician cities •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram •  969 – 936 BC Hiram I 
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Chiusi
Chiusi
Chiusi
(Etruscan: Clevsin; Umbrian: Camars; Ancient Greek: Klysion, Κλύσιον; Latin: Clusium) is a town and comune in province of Siena, Tuscany, Italy.Contents1 History 2 Main sights 3 Transportation 4 Twin towns 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Figure from Chiusi
Chiusi
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, GermanyFor ancient history, see Clusium. Clusium
Clusium
(Clevsin in Etruscan) was one of the more powerful cities in the Etruscan League. Chiusi
Chiusi
came under the influence of Rome in the 3rd century BC and was involved in the Social War. In 540 AD it was occupied by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and was later seat of a Lombard duchy
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Siana Cup
A Siana cup is a type of Attic cup decorated in the black-figure technique. They are named after one of their find locations, the necropolis of the ancient city of Siana on Rhodes. During the second quarter of the 6th century BC, Siana cups were the predominant cup shape in Athens. The shape remained popular later and was still being produced in large quantities during the era of the Little-master cups. Siana cups were the successors of Komast cups, produced by the Komast Group. In fact, the last representatives of that group were the first to manufacture Siana cups. Typical features include the clearly distinguished lip or rim, and the concave foot, which is taller than in Komast cups. The handles are slightly upturned. A new development is the use of painted tondos on the cup interior
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Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic compound, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science. The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, vitrified, and often completely amorphous (e.g., glasses). Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators (extensively researched in ceramic engineering). With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic (e.g
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Potter's Wheel
In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware. The wheel may also be used during the process of trimming the excess body from dried ware, and for applying incised decoration or rings of colour. Use of the potter's wheel became widespread throughout the Old World
Old World
but was unknown in the Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
New World, where pottery was handmade by methods that included coiling and beating. A potter's wheel may occasionally be referred to as a "potter's lathe". However, that term is better used for another kind of machine that is used for a different shaping process, turning, similar to that used for shaping of metal and wooden articles. The techniques of jiggering and jolleying can be seen as extensions of the potter's wheel: in jiggering, a shaped tool is slowly brought down onto the plastic clay body that has been placed on top of the rotating plaster mould
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Carbonization
Carbonization
Carbonization
(or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal. Fossil fuels generally are the products of the carbonization of vegetable matter. The term carbonization is also applied to the pyrolysis of coal to produce coke
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Cyprus
Cyprus,[f] officially the Republic of Cyprus,[g] is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC
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Syria
Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-SūrīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the HomelandCapital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300Official languages ArabicEthnic groupsSyrian Arabs Arameans Kurds Turkomans Assyrians Circassians ArmeniansReligion 87% Isl
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Tinware
Tinware
Tinware
is any item made of prefabricated tinplate. Usually tinware refers to kitchenware made of tinplate, often crafted by tinsmiths. Many cans used for canned food are tinware as well. Something that is tinned after being shaped and fabricated is not considered tinware.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Tinplate 3 History of Tinware
Tinware
in the United States 4 Applications of Tinware 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] Tinware
Tinware
is strong, easily shaped, solder able, and is non-toxic. In addition, it has a good appearance which can be further enhanced by lacquering it. Of extreme importance is its property of corrosion resistance, especially against attack by food products. These properties are due to the properties of tinplate, as tinware is made of tinplate.[2] Tinplate[edit] Tinplate originated in Bohemia
Bohemia
in the Middle Ages
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Silver
Silver
Silver
is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal
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Orientalizing
The Orientalizing
Orientalizing
(US) or Orientalising (UK) period was a cultural and art historical period of the Archaic phase of ancient Greek and Greek-inspired art. It started during the later part of the 8th century BCE, when there was a heavy influence from the more advanced art of the Eastern Mediterranean and Ancient Near East
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Ceramicist
A studio potter is one who is a modern artist or artisan, who either works alone or in a small group, producing unique items of pottery in small quantities, typically with all stages of manufacture carried out by themselves.[1] Studio pottery
Studio pottery
includes functional wares such as tableware, cookware and non-functional wares such as sculpture. Studio potters can be referred to as ceramic artists, ceramists, ceramicists or as an artist who uses clay as a medium. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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