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Bryidae
BRYANAE Bartramiales Bryales Hedwigiales Orthotrichales Rhizogoniales Splachnales
Splachnales
HYPNANAE Hookeriales Hypnales Hypnodendrales Ptychomniales BRYIDAE is an important subclass of Bryopsida
Bryopsida
. It is common throughout the whole world. Members have a double peristome with alternating tooth segments. CLASSIFICATIONThe classification of the Bryidae. SUPERORDER: BRYANAE Splachnales
Splachnales
Bryales Bartramiales Orthotrichales Hedwigiales Rhizogoniales SUPERORDER: HYPNANAE Hypnodendrales Ptychomniales Hookeriales Hypnales REFERENCES * ^ Buck, William R. & Bernard Goffinet. 2000. "Morphology and classification of mosses", pages 71-123 in A
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Engl.
HEINRICH GUSTAV ADOLF ENGLER (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist . He is notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography , such as Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), edited with Karl A. E. von Prantl . Even now, his system of plant classification, the Engler system
Engler system
, is still used by many herbaria and is followed by writers of many manuals and floras . It is still the only system that treats all 'plants' (in the wider sense, algae to flowering plants ) in such depth. Engler published a prodigious number of taxonomic works. He used various artists to illustrate his books, notably Joseph Pohl (1864–1939), an illustrator who had served an apprenticeship as a wood-engraver. Pohl's skill drew Engler's attention, starting a collaboration of some 40 years. Pohl produced more than 33 000 drawings in 6 000 plates for Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Bryophyte
BRYOPHYTES are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes ), the liverworts , hornworts and mosses . They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments. The bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they do not produce flowers or seeds . They reproduce via spores . Bryophytes are usually considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term. The term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" + φυτόν – phyton "plant"
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Hypnales
See Classification HYPNALES is the botanical name of an order of Bryophyta or leafy mosses . This group is sometimes called feather mosses, referring to their freely branched stems. The order includes more than 40 families and more than 4,000 species, making them the largest order of mosses. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Habitat, distribution and paleobiology * 3 Classification * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Hypnum lindbergii, cross section of the stem with the central vascular bundle River feather-moss, Brachythecium rivulare, prosenchymatic leaf blade cells Detail of a sporangium with a beak-shaped operculum Hypnales
Hypnales
are mosses with pinnately or irregularly branched, reclining stems, with varying appearances. The stem contains only a reduced central vascular bundle , which is seen as a recent derived trait in mosses
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Peristome
PERISTOME (from the Greek peri, meaning 'around' or 'about', and stoma, 'mouth') is an anatomical feature that surrounds an opening to an organ or structure. Some plants , fungi , and shelled gastropods have peristomes. CONTENTS * 1 In mosses * 2 In pitcher plants * 3 In fungi * 4 In shelled gastropods * 5 References * 6 External links IN MOSSES Arthrodontous capsule of the moss Dicranella varia Peristoma of Bryum capillare In mosses , the peristome is a specialized structure in the sporangium that allows for gradual spore discharge, instead of releasing them all at once. Most mosses produce a capsule with a lid (the operculum ) which falls off when the spores inside are mature and thus ready to be dispersed. The opening thus revealed is called the stoma (meaning "mouth") and is surrounded by one or two peristomes. Each peristome is a ring of triangular "teeth" formed from the remnants of dead cells with thickened cell walls
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Hookeriales
See text. HOOKERIALES is the botanical name of an order of Bryophyta or leafy mosses . Named for William Jackson Hooker
William Jackson Hooker
, it is composed of mainly subtropical and tropical species of mosses with generally complanate and asymmetrical leaves. FAMILIES Hookeriales
Hookeriales
comprises the following families: * Daltoniaceae * Hookeriaceae * Hypopterygiaceae * Leucomiaceae * Pilotrichaceae * Saulomataceae * Schimperobryaceae REFERENCES * ^ Smith, A. J. E.; Smith, Ruth (2004). The Moss
Moss
Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 698
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Rhizogoniales
RHIZOGONIALES is an order of mosses in the Bryopsida
Bryopsida

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Bryales
Bryaceae Catoscopiaceae Leptostomataceae Mniaceae Phyllodrepaniaceae Pseudoditrichaceae Pulchrinodaceae BRYALES is an order of mosses , including the following families : * Bryaceae * Catoscopiaceae * Leptostomataceae * Mniaceae * Phyllodrepaniaceae * Pseudoditrichaceae * Pulchrinodaceae The order used to be defined broadly to include the Rhizogoniales , but is now used in a narrower sense. A species of the Mniaceae genus Rhizomnium , Rhizomnium dentatum , was described from fossil gametophytes preserved in Baltic amber
Baltic amber
. REFERENCES * ^ Buck, William R. & Bernard Goffinet. 2000. "Morphology and classification of mosses", pages 71-123 in A. Jonathan Shaw Hedenäs, L; Schäfer-Verwimp, A; Feldberg, K; Schmidt, AR (2014). "An in situ preserved moss community in Eocene Baltic amber". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
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Moss
MOSSES are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations. The individual plants are usually composed of simple leaves that are generally only one cell thick, attached to a stem that may be branched or unbranched and has only a limited role in conducting water and nutrients. Although some species have conducting tissues, these are generally poorly developed and structurally different from similar tissue found in vascular plants . Mosses do not have seeds and after fertilisation develop sporophytes with unbranched stalks topped with single capsules containing spores . They are typically 0.2–10 cm (0.1–3.9 in) tall, though some species are much larger. Dawsonia , the tallest moss in the world, can grow to 50 cm (20 in) in height. Mosses are commonly confused with lichens , hornworts , and liverworts
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Orthotrichales
See text. ORTHOTRICHACEAE is the only family of mosses in order ORTHOTRICHALES. Many species in the family are epiphytic . CLASSIFICATION * Cardotiella * Ceuthotheca * Codonoblepharon * Desmotheca * Florschuetziella * Groutiella * Leiomitrium * Leptodontiopsis * Leratia * Macrocoma * Macromitrium * Matteria * Orthotrichum
Orthotrichum
* Pentastichella * Pleurorthotrichum * Schlotheimia * Sehnemobryum * Stoneobryum * Ulota * Zygodon REFERENCES * ^ Goffinet, B.; W. R. Buck; A. J. Shaw (2008). "Morphology and Classification of the Bryophyta". In Bernard Goffinet & A. Jonathan Shaw (eds.). Bryophyte
Bryophyte
Biology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 55–138. ISBN 978-0-521-87225-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Goffinet, Bernard; William R. Buck (2004)
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Aulacomnium Palustre
AULACOMNIUM PALUSTRE, the BOG GROOVE-MOSS or RIBBED BOG MOSS, is a moss that is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution. It occurs in North America , the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
, Venezuela
Venezuela
, Eurasia
Eurasia
, and New Zealand . In North America, it occurs across southern arctic , subboreal , and boreal regions from Alaska
Alaska
and British Columbia
British Columbia
to Greenland
Greenland
and Quebec
Quebec
. Documentation of ribbed bog moss's distribution in the contiguous United States is probably incomplete. It is reported sporadically south to Washington , Wyoming
Wyoming
, Georgia , and Virginia
Virginia

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