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Brunnichia
B. africana B. chirrhosa B. congoensis B. erecta B. ovata The genus BRUNNICHIA, also known as REDVINE or BUCKWHEAT VINE, are perennial woody vines native to the United States
United States
. Redvine species are a pest when they grow within crops; for example, B. ovata is a significant problem in soybean crops in the Mississippi Delta . It is an example for thigmotropism . Usually thigmotropism occurs when plants grow around a surface, such as a wall, pot, or trellis. Climbing plants, such as vines, develop tendrils that coil around supporting objects. Touched cells produce auxin and transport it to untouched cells. Some untouched cells will then elongate faster so cell growth bends around the object. Some seedlings also exhibit triple response, caused by pulses of ethylene which cause the stem to thicken and curve to start growing horizontally. REFERENCES * ^ Reddy, Krishna N.; Chachalis, Demosthenis (2004)
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Mississippi Delta
The MISSISSIPPI DELTA is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Mississippi
Mississippi
which lies between the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Yazoo Rivers . The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth" ("Southern" in the sense of "characteristic of its region, the American South "), because of its unique racial, cultural, and economic history. It is 200 miles long and 70 miles across at its widest point, encompassing circa 4,415,000 acres, or, some 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain . Originally covered in hardwood forest across the bottomlands, it was developed as one of the richest cotton -growing areas in the nation before the American Civil War (1861-1865)
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Soybean
GLYCINE MAX, commonly known as SOYBEAN in North America or SOYA BEAN, is a species of legume native to East Asia
East Asia
, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant, classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
, produces significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land. Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals . For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid , dietary minerals and B vitamins . Soy vegetable oil , used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop
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Tendril
In botany , a TENDRIL is a specialized stem , leaves or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support, attachment and cellular invasion by parasitic plants, generally by twining around suitable hosts. They do not have a lamina or blade, but they can photosynthesize . They can be formed from modified shoots, modified leaves, or auxiliary branches and are sensitive to airborne chemicals, often determining the direction of growth, as in species of Cuscuta . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Biology of tendrils * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe earliest and most comprehensive study of tendrils was Charles Darwin\'s monograph On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants, which was originally published in 1865. This work also coined the term circumnutation to describe the motion of growing stems and tendrils seeking supports
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Auxin
AUXINS (plural of auxin /ˈɔːksᵻn/ ) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen -like characteristics. Auxins have a cardinal role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are essential for plant body development. Auxins and their role in plant growth were first described by the Dutch scientist Frits Warmolt Went . Kenneth V. Thimann was the first to isolate one of these phytohormones and determine its chemical structure as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Went and Thimann co-authored a book on plant hormones, Phytohormones, in 1937
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Vine
A VINE ( Latin
Latin
vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine ( Vitis ), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work. In the United Kingdom, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. CONTENTS* 1 Growth forms * 1.1 Use as garden plants * 2 Horticultural climbing plants * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GROWTH FORMS Climbing plant covering a chimney Retaining wall covered by vines Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales
Amborellales
* Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed"). The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Core Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Caryophyllales
Caryophyllineae Polygonineae SYNONYMS Centrospermae CARYOPHYLLALES (/ˌkærioʊfiˈleɪliːz/ kair-ee-uu-fil-LAY-leez ) is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti , carnations , amaranths , ice plants , beets , and many carnivorous plants . Many members are succulent , having fleshy stems or leaves . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Circumscription * 2.1 APG III * 2.2 APG II * 2.3 APG * 2.4 Cronquist * 2.5 Earlier circumscriptions * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe members of Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
include about 6% of eudicot species . This order is part of the core eudicots . Currently, the Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Red Vine (other)
RED VINE or REDVINE may refer to: * Basella alba , a vegetable also known as red vine spinach * Brunnichia , a genus of woody vines known as redvine * Red Vines , a brand of licorice * "Red Vines", a song from the Aimee Mann album Bachelor No
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