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Brown Dog Affair
The Brown Dog affair
Brown Dog affair
was a political controversy about vivisection that raged in England from 1903 until 1910. It involved the infiltration by Swedish feminists of University of London
University of London
medical lectures, pitched battles between medical students and the police, police protection for the statue of a dog, a libel trial at the Royal Courts of Justice, and the establishment of a Royal Commission to investigate the use of animals in experiments
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(/ˈkoʊləˌrɪdʒ/; 21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
and Kubla Khan, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria. His critical work, especially on William Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. Coleridge coined many familiar words and phrases, including suspension of disbelief
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Chamberlain (office)
A chamberlain (Medieval Latin: cambellanus or cambrerius, with charge of treasury camerarius) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. Historically, the chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was often also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber. The position was usually honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility (nobleman) or the clergy, often a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius. The papal chamberlain of the Pope
Pope
enjoys very extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was often silvered, and actually fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a merely symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze
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Duodenum
The duodenum [help 1] is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum.[5] In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption.[6] The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine . In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum
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Jejunum
The jejunum (/dʒɪˈdʒuːnəm/[2][3]) is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. The jejunum lies between the duodenum and the ileum. The jejunum is considered to begin at the attachment of the suspensory muscle of the duodenum to the duodenum, a location called the duodenojejunal flexure.[4] The division between the jejunum and ileum is not anatomically distinct.[5] In adult humans, the small intestine is usually 6-7m long, about two-fifths of which (2.5 m) is the jejunum.[4]Contents1 Structure1.1 Histology2 Function 3 Other animals 4 History4.1 Etymology5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] See also: Small intestine The interior surface of the jejunum—which is exposed to ingested food—is covered in finger-like projections of mucosa, called villi, which increase the surface area of tissue available to absorb nutrients from ingested foodstuffs
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Chyme
Chyme or chymus (/kaɪm/; from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice"[1][2]) is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum[3] (the beginning of the small intestine). Chyme results from the mechanical and chemical breakdown of a bolus and consists of partially digested food, water, hydrochloric acid, and various digestive enzymes. Chyme slowly passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum, where the extraction of nutrients begins. Depending on the quantity and contents of the meal, the stomach will digest the food into chyme in anywhere between 40 minutes to a few hours. With a pH of approximately 2, chyme emerging from the stomach is very acidic. The duodenum secretes a hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), which causes the gall bladder to contract, releasing alkaline bile into the duodenum. CCK also causes the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas
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Secretin
NM_021920n/aRefSeq (protein)NP_068739n/aLocation (UCSC) Chr 11: 0.63 – 0.63 Mb n/a PubMed
PubMed
search [2] n/aWikidataView/Edit Human Secretin
Secretin
is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver. It is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum, which are located in the intestinal glands.[3] In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene.[4] Secretin
Secretin
helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the ductal cells of the pancreas.[5][6] It also stimulates bile production by the liver; the bile emulsifies dietary fats in the duodenum so that pancreatic lipase can act upon them
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Circulatory System
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood.[2] Blood
Blood
is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues
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Hormone
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system
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Peristalsis
Peristalsis
Peristalsis
is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction. In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract
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Cheltenham Ladies College
Cheltenham Ladies' College is an independent boarding and day school for girls aged 11 to 18 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England. In the Financial Times' secondary school ranking,[1] Cheltenham Ladies College was placed at no. 34 in 2011 and no. 14 in 2010. Having introduced the International Baccalaureate in 2010, school rankings have yet to reflect this change. The college was the top girls boarding school and 6th overall in UK rankings for the International Baccalaureate Diploma in 2017.[2] The Tatler School Guide 2018 notes that "confident, resilient, clever girls flourish" at the college.[3] The Good Schools Guide described the school as "a top flight school with strong traditional values and a clear sense of purpose
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Pasteur Institute
The Pasteur Institute
Pasteur Institute
(French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who made some of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine at the time, including pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax and rabies. The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. For over a century, the Institut Pasteur
Institut Pasteur
has been at the forefront of the battle against infectious disease. This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris
Paris
was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983
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Pancreas
The pancreas /ˈpæŋkriəs/ is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood.[2] The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme
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London School Of Medicine For Women
The London School of Medicine for Women
London School of Medicine for Women
established in 1874 was the first medical school in Britain to train women as doctors.[1]Contents1 History 2 Notable graduates 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]London School of Medicine for Women, Hunter Street.The school was formed by an association of pioneering women physicians Sophia Jex-Blake, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Emily Blackwell
Emily Blackwell
and Elizabeth Blackwell with Thomas Henry Huxley. The founding was motivated at least in part by Jex-Blake's frustrated attempts at getting a medical degree at a time when women were not admitted to British medical schools. Other women who had studied with Jex-Blake in Edinburgh joined her at the London school, including Isabel Thorne
Isabel Thorne
who succeeded her as honorary secretary in 1877
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Ligature (medicine)
In surgery or medical procedure, a ligature consists of a piece of thread (suture) tied around an anatomical structure, usually a blood vessel or another hollow structure (e.g. urethra) to shut it off. With a blood vessel the surgeon will clamp the vessel perpendicular to the axis of the artery or vein with a hemostat, then secure it by ligating it; i.e. using a piece of suture around it before dividing the structure and releasing the hemostat. It is different from a tourniquet in that the tourniquet will not be secured by knots and it can therefore be released/tightened at will. The principle of ligation is attributed to Hippocrates and Galen,[1][2] later reintroduced some 1,500 years later by Ambroise Paré,[3] and finally it found its modern use in 1870–80, made popular by Jules-Émile Péan. See also[edit]Hemostat Tourniquet Surgical suture List of medical topics CheesewiringReferences[edit]^ Lois N. Magner (1992). A History of Medicine
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Pancreatic Duct
The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct), is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juice provided from the exocrine pancreas which aids in digestion. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. There are many anatomical variants reported but these are quite rare.[2] The duct of Wirsung is named after its discoverer, the German anatomist Johann Georg Wirsung (1589–1643).[3]Contents1 Accessory pancreatic duct 2 Clinical significance 3 Additional images 4 ReferencesAccessory pancreatic duct[edit] Most people have just one pancreatic duct. However, some have an additional accessory pancreatic duct, called the Duct of Santorini
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