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Bromadiolone
Bromadiolone
Bromadiolone
is a potent anticoagulant rodenticide. It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a "super-warfarin" for its added potency and tendency to accumulate in the liver of the poisoned organism. When first introduced to the UK market in 1980, it was effective against the populations that had become resistant to the first generation anticoagulants. The product may be used both indoors and outdoors for rats and mice. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Anticoagulant
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time. Some of them occur naturally in blood-eating animals such as leeches and mosquitoes, where they help keep the bite area unclotted long enough for the animal to obtain some blood. As a class of medications, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are taken by many people in pill or tablet form, and various intravenous anticoagulant dosage forms are used in hospitals. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and dialysis equipment. Anticoagulants are closely related to antiplatelet drugs and thrombolytic drugs by manipulating the various pathways of blood coagulation
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Inorganic Compound
A chemical compound is termed inorganic if it fulfills one or more of the following criteria:most of them do not contain carbon It cannot be found or incorporated into a living organismThere is no clear or universally agreed-upon distinction between organic and inorganic compounds
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Ergocalciferol
Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency.[2] This includes vitamin D deficiency due to poor absorption by the intestines or liver disease.[3] It may also be used for low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism.[3] It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle.[2][3] Excessive doses can result in increased urine production, high blood pressure, kidney stones, kidney failure, weakness, and constipation.[4] If high doses are taken for a long period of time, tissue calcification may occur.[3] It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked.[2] Normal doses are safe in pregnancy.[5] It works by increasing the amount of calcium absorbed by the intestines and kidneys.[4] Food in which it is found include some mushrooms.[6]
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Cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.[1] It is used to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency and associated diseases, including rickets.[2][3] It is also used for familial hypophosphatemia, hypoparathyroidism that is causing low blood calcium, and Fanconi syndrome.[3][4] It is usually taken by mouth.[4] Excessive doses can result in vomiting, constipation, weakness, and confusion.[5] Other risks include kidney stones.[6] Normal doses are safe in pregnancy.[5] It may not be effective in people with severe kidney disease.[6] Cholecalciferol
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Vitamin D
Vitamin
Vitamin
D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).[1] Cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol
and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements.[1][2][3] Only a few foods contain vitamin D. The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation)
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Convulsant
A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. These drugs generally act as stimulants at low doses, but are not used for this purpose due to the risk of convulsions and consequent excitotoxicity. Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists. Many other drugs may cause convulsions as a side effect at high doses (e.g. bupropion, tramadol, pethidine, dextropropoxyphene, clomipramine) but only drugs whose primary action is to cause convulsions are known as convulsants
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Cornell University
Cornell University
University
(/kɔːrˈnɛl/ kor-NEL) is a private and statutory Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell
and Andrew Dickson White,[7] the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."[1] The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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United States Government Publishing Office
The United States Government Publishing Office
United States Government Publishing Office
(GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office prints and binds documents produced by and for the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies. In December 2014 an omnibus spending bill funding US federal government operations was passed which included a provision changing the name from Government Printing Office to Government Publishing Office
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Vitamin K1
Phytomenadione, also known as vitamin K1 or phylloquinone, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1][2] As a supplement it is used to treat certain bleeding disorders.[2] This includes in warfarin overdose, vitamin K deficiency, and obstructive jaundice.[2] It is also recommended to prevent and treat hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.[2] Use is typically recommended by mouth or injection under the skin.[2] Use by injection into a vein or muscle is recommended only when other routes are not possible.[2] When given by injection benefits are seen within two hours.[2] Common side effects when given by injection include pain at the site of injection and altered taste.[2] Severe allergic reactions may occur with injected into a vein or muscle.[2] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe; however, use is likely okay during breastfeeding.[3] It works by supplying a required component for making a number of blood clotting factors.[2] Found sources include green veget
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Maximum Tolerated Dose
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.[1] The related terms therapeutic window or safety window refer to a range of doses which optimize between efficacy and toxicity, achieving the greatest therapeutic benefit without resulting in unacceptable side-effects or toxicity. Classically, in an established clinical indication setting of an approved drug, TI refers to the ratio of the dose of drug that causes adverse effects at an incidence/severity not compatible with the targeted indication (e.g. toxic dose in 50% of subjects, TD50) to the dose that leads to the desired pharmacological effect (e.g. efficacious dose in 50% of subjects, ED50)
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Median Lethal Dose
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927.[1] The term semilethal dose is occasionally used with the same meaning, in particular in translations from non-English-language texts, but can also refer to a sublethal dose; because of this ambiguity, it is usually avoided. LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice. In 2011, the U.S
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Emergency Planning And Community Right-to-Know Act
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
of 1986 is a United States federal law
United States federal law
passed by the 99th United States Congress located at Title 42, Chapter 116 of the U.S. Code, concerned with emergency response preparedness. On October 17, 1986, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
signed into law the Superfund
Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). This act amended the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund. A free-standing law, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) was commonly known as SARA Title III
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