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Broadband
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access
Internet access
that is always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN
ISDN
PSTN services.Contents1 Overview 2 Broadband
Broadband
technologies2.1 Telecommunications 2.2 Computer networks 2.3 TV and video 2.4 Alternative technologies3 Internet broadband3.1 Global bandwidth concentration4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times
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Streaming Media
Streaming media
Streaming media
is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs)
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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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Sound Reproduction
Sound
Sound
recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it
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Telephone Line
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone
Telephone
lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line
Digital subscriber line
(DSL) phone cable service to the premises
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Bit Rate
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.[1] The bit rate is quantified using the bits per second unit (symbol: "bit/s"), often in conjunction with an SI prefix
SI prefix
such as "kilo" (1 kbit/s = 1,000 bit/s), "mega" (1  Mbit/s = 1,000 kbit/s), "giga" (1 
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Load Coil
A loading coil or load coil is an inductor that is inserted into an electronic circuit to increase its inductance. A loading coil is not a transformer as it does not provide coupling to another circuit. The term originated in the 19th century for inductors used to prevent signal distortion in long-distance telegraph transmission cables. The term is also used for inductors in radio antennas, or between the antenna and its feedline, to make an electrically short antenna resonant at its operating frequency. The concept of loading coils was discovered by Oliver Heaviside
Oliver Heaviside
in studying the problem of slow signalling speed of the first transatlantic telegraph cable in the 1860s. He concluded additional inductance was required to prevent amplitude and time delay distortion of the transmitted signal
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Very-high-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line
Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line
(VDSL)[1] and very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2)[2] are digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies providing data transmission faster than asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL). VDSL
VDSL
offers speeds of up to 52  Mbit/s downstream and 16  Mbit/s upstream,[3] over a single flat untwisted or twisted pair of copper wires using the frequency band from 25 kHz to 12 MHz.[4] These rates mean that VDSL
VDSL
is capable of supporting applications such as high-definition television, as well as telephone services (voice over IP) and general Internet access, over a single connection. VDSL
VDSL
is deployed over existing wiring used for analog telephone service and lower-speed DSL connections
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Line Code
Some signals are more prone to error than others when conveyed over a communication channel as the physics of the communication or storage medium constrains the repertoire of signals that can be used reliably.[1] The repertoire of signals is usually called a constrained code in data storage systems. In telecommunication, a line code is a code chosen for use within a communications system for transmitting a digital signal down a transmission line. Line or constrained coding generates the repertoire of allowed digital signals to be transported, with a waveform or set of allowed waveforms that is appropriate for the specific properties of the physical channel and of the receiving equipment
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Radio Frequency
Radio
Radio
frequency (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7004200000000000000♠20 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz, roughly the frequencies used in radio communication.[1] The term does not have an official definition, and different sources specify slightly different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Music
Music
Music
is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music
Music
is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments
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Television
Television
Television
(TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television transmission. Television
Television
is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news. Television
Television
became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses, and institutions
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Analog Signal
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. For example, in an analog audio signal, the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves. It differs from a digital signal, in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values.[1][2] The term analog signal usually refers to electrical signals; however, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, human speech, and other systems may also convey or be considered analog signals. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information
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Video
Video
Video
is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.[1] Video
Video
was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video
Video
systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities
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Modulation
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. In general telecommunications, modulation is a process of conveying message signal, for example, a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation
Modulation
of a sine waveform transforms a narrow frequency range baseband message signal into a moderate to high frequency range passband signal, one that can pass through a filter. A modulator is a device that performs modulation. A demodulator (sometimes detector or demod) is a device that performs demodulation, the inverse of modulation
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Antonym
In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big : small, long : short, and precede : follow. The notion of incompatibility here refers to the fact that one word in an opposite pair entails that it is not the other pair member. For example, something that is long entails that it is not short. It is referred to as a 'binary' relationship because there are two members in a set of opposites. The relationship between opposites is known as opposition. A member of a pair of opposites can generally be determined by the question What is the opposite of  X ? The term antonym (and the related antonymy) is commonly taken to be synonymous with opposite, but antonym also has other more restricted meanings
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