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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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Anglo-Saxon
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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Cumbric
Cumbric
Cumbric
was a variety of the Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
language spoken during the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
in the Hen Ogledd
Hen Ogledd
or "Old North" in what is now Northern England
Northern England
and southern Lowland Scotland.[2] It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. Place name evidence suggests Cumbric
Cumbric
may also have been spoken as far south as Pendle
Pendle
and the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales
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Spoken Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland
Ireland
is the third-largest island in Europe. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland
Ireland
was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe
Europe
after Great Britain
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Anglo-Frisian
Anglic (or English):   English   Scots Frisian:   West Frisian   North Frisian   Saterland Frisian Hatched areas indicate where multilingualism is common.The Anglo- Frisian languages
Frisian languages
are the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian. The Anglo- Frisian languages
Frisian languages
are distinct from other West Germanic languages due to several sound changes: the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Anglo-Frisian brightening, and palatalization of /k/:English cheese and West Frisian tsiis, but Dutch kaas, Low German Kees, and German Käse English church and West Frisian tsjerke, but Dutch kerk, Low German Kerk, Kark, and German KircheThe early Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon
Old Saxon
were spoken by intercommunicating populations, which led to shared linguistic traits through assimilation
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Germanic Tribes
The Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.[1] They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[2] The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower, Upper, and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. The Roman use of the term "Germanic" was not necessarily based upon language, but referred to the tribal groups and alliances that lived in the regions of modern-day Luxembourg, Belgium, Northern France, Alsace, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany, and which were considered less civilized and more physically hardened than the Celtic Gauls
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
The Netherlands
(/ˈnɛðərləndz/ ( listen); Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( listen)), also known informally as Holland, is a country in Western Europe
Europe
with a population of seventeen million
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Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic
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Comparison Of General American And Received Pronunciation
Pronunciation
Pronunciation
is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect ("correct pronunciation"), or simply the way a particular individual speaks a word or language. A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or voice disorders,[1] their ethnic group, their social class, or their education.[2]Contents1 Linguistic terminology 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksLinguistic terminology[edit] Syllables are counted as units of sound (phones) that they use in their language. The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics
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Continental Celtic
The Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of the British Isles
British Isles
and Brittany. Continental Celtic is a geographic, not a linguistic, grouping of the ancient Celtic languages. The Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
were spoken by the people known to Roman and Greek writers as Keltoi, Celtae, Galli and Galatae. These languages were spoken in an arc stretching across from Iberia in the west to the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia
Anatolia
in the east. Even though Breton is spoken in continental Europe, and has been since at least the 6th century AD, it is not considered one of the Continental Celtic languages. It is a Brittonic language closely related to Cornish and Welsh
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Cornish Language
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.[5][6] It is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language that was native to Cornwall
Cornwall
in south-west England. A revival began in the early 20th century. The language is considered to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage.[7][8] Cornish is currently a recognised minority language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[9]. It has a growing number of second language speakers.[10] A few parents are inspired to create new first language speakers, by teaching their children the language from birth.[11][12][13][14] Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language
English language
came to dominate
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Welsh Language
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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