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Brilliant Blue FCF
BRILLIANT BLUE FCF (Blue 1) is an organic compound classified as a triarylmethane dye , reflecting its chemical structure. Known under various commercial names, it is a colorant for foods and other substances. It is denoted by E number E133 and has a color index of 42090. It has the appearance of a reddish-blue powder. It is soluble in water, and the solution has a maximum absorption at about 628 nanometers . CONTENTS * 1 Production * 2 Applications * 3 Health and safety * 4 Biomedical research * 5 References * 6 External links PRODUCTIONIt is a synthetic dye produced by the condensation of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid and the appropriate aniline followed by oxidation. It can be combined with tartrazine (E102) to produce various shades of green. It is usually a disodium salt. The diammonium salt has CAS number 3844-45-9. Calcium and potassium salts are also permitted. It can also appear as an aluminium lake
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Chemical Synthesis
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product , or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories. A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask . Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated
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Dye
A DYE is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution , and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments are colored because they absorb only some wavelengths of visible light . Dyes are usually soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble. Some dyes can be rendered insoluble with the addition of salt to produce a lake pigment
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Condensation
CONDENSATION is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase , and is the reverse of evaporation . The word most often refers to the water cycle . It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere . When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition (or desublimation, see Sublimation (phase transition)
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Benzenesulfonic Acid
BENZENESULFONIC ACID (conjugate base BENZENESULFONATE) is an organosulfur compound with the formula C 6H 5S O 3H . It is the simplest aromatic sulfonic acid . It forms white deliquescent sheet crystals or a white waxy solid that is soluble in water and ethanol , slightly soluble in benzene and insoluble in nonpolar solvents like diethyl ether . It is often stored in the form of alkali metal salts . Its aqueous solution is strongly acidic . CONTENTS * 1 Preparation * 2 Reactions * 3 Applications * 4 References PREPARATIONBenzenesulfonic acid is prepared from the sulfonation of benzene using concentrated sulfuric acid : This conversion illustrates aromatic sulfonation, which has been called "one of the most important reactions in industrial organic chemistry." REACTIONSBenzenesulfonic acid exhibits the reactions typical of other aromatic sulfonic acids , forming sulfonamides, sulfonyl chloride, and esters. The sulfonation is reversed above 220 °C
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Nanometre
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale )
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Colourant
A COLOURANT/COLOUR ADDITIVE (British spelling) or COLORANT/COLOR ADDITIVE (American spelling) is a substance that is added or applied in order to change the colour of a material or surface. Colourants can be used for many purposes including printing , painting , and for colouring many types of materials such as foods and plastics . Colourants work by absorbing varying amounts of light at different wavelengths (or frequencies ) of its spectrum , transmitting (if translucent) or reflecting the remaining light in straight lines or scattered . Most colourants can be classified as dyes or pigments , or containing some combination of these. Typical dyes are largely translucent, while pigments are made up of solid particles and are partially or entirely opaque. These properties may change when other common ingredients such as binders and fillers are added, for example in paints and inks . In addition, some colourants impart colour through reactions with other substances
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S45
S45, S-45 or S.45 may refer to: * S45 (Berlin) , a public transportation route in Germany * Vienna S-Bahn line, a public transportation route in Austria * S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) , a safety phrase in chemistry * S45 postcode for North East Derbyshire * Canon PowerShot S45 , a digital camera model *
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Blue1
BLUE1 OY was a Finnish airline owned by CityJet
CityJet
. It was a subsidiary of the SAS Group
SAS Group
and flew to around 28 destinations in Europe, mainly from its base at Helsinki Airport
Helsinki Airport
. It carried over 1.7 million passengers in 2011. The airline was a member of Star Alliance and had its head office in Vantaa
Vantaa
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Development since 2004 * 2 Destinations * 3 Fleet * 3.1 Retired fleet * 4 Onboard services * 5 References * 5.1 Citations * 5.2 Bibliography * 6 External links HISTORY Air Botnia Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante
Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante
at Helsinki
Helsinki
Vantaa
Vantaa
in 1994
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Standard State
In chemistry , the STANDARD STATE of a material (pure substance , mixture or solution ) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa . Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas , regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F)
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Organic Compound
An ORGANIC COMPOUND is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon , although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry
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Lake Pigment
A LAKE PIGMENT is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder , or "mordant ", usually a metallic salt . Unlike vermilion , ultramarine , and other pigments made from ground minerals, lake pigments are organic. Manufacturers and suppliers to artists and industry frequently omit the lake designation in the name. Many lake pigments are fugitive because the dyes involved are not lightfast . Red lakes were particularly important in Renaissance and Baroque paintings; they were often used as translucent glazes to portray the colors of rich fabrics and draperies. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Chemistry * 3 History and art * 4 References ETYMOLOGYThe term "lake" is derived from the term lac , the secretions of the Indian wood insect Laccifer lacca (formerly known as the Coccus lacca). It has the same root as the word lacquer, and comes originally from the Hindi word lakh, through the Arabic word lakk and the Persian word lak
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Ice Cream
ICE CREAM (derived from earlier ICED CREAM or CREAM ICE ) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert . It is usually made from dairy products , such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors . It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes . Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard ", "frozen yogurt ", "sorbet ", "gelato " and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles
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Indigo Carmine
INDIGO CARMINE, or 5,5′-INDIGODISULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT, is an organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation , which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant in the U.S and E.U., It has the E number E132. It is also a pH indicator . USES INDIGO CARMINE (pH indicator ) below pH 11.4 above pH 13.0 11.4 ⇌ 13.0Indigo carmine in a 0.2% aqueous solution is blue at pH 11.4 and yellow at 13.0. Indigo carmine is also a redox indicator , turning yellow upon reduction. Another use is as a dissolved ozone indicator through the conversion to isatin-5-sulfonic acid. This reaction has been shown not to be specific to ozone, however: it also detects superoxide , an important distinction in cell physiology. It is also used as a dye in the manufacturing of capsules . In obstetric surgery, indigo carmine solutions are sometimes employed to detect amniotic fluid leaks
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Smarties
SMARTIES are a colour-varied sugar-coated chocolate confectionery . They have been manufactured since 1937, originally by H.I. Rowntree "> Smarties
Smarties
are popular primarily in Europe, Canada, South Africa, Australasia and the Middle East. In the USA rights to the name belong to the Smarties Candy Company , which manufactures its own hard tablet sweet under the registered trademark name Smarties
Smarties
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Colours * 3 Variants * 4 Advertising slogans * 4.1 UK and Ireland * 4.2 Canada
Canada
* 4.3 Germany * 4.4 South Africa * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYRowntree\'s of York
York
, England, have been making " Chocolate
Chocolate
Beans" since at least 1882. The product was renamed " Smarties
Smarties
Chocolate Beans" in 1937
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Spirulina (dietary Supplement)
SPIRULINA represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals. There are two species, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima . Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food ; and is also available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture , aquarium and poultry industries. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and ecology * 2 Historical use * 3 Food and nutrition * 3.1 Vitamin B12 * 4 Risks * 4.1 Quality-related safety and toxicology * 4.2 Safety issues for certain target groups * 4.3 Animals and aquaculture * 5 Research * 6 Advocates * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Spirulina powder at 400x, unstained wet mount. Main article: Arthrospira The maxima and plaetensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina
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