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Branches Of Science
The branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into three major groups:Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, chemical, and biological factors of the universe) Formal sciences: the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology. Social
Social
sciences: the study of human behavior and societies.[1][better source needed]Natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, meaning that the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and must be capable of being verified by other researchers working under the same conditions. [2] This verifiability may well vary even within a scientific discipline [3][4] Natural, social, and formal science make up the fundamental sciences, which form the basis of interdisciplinary and applied sciences such as engineering and medicine
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Theoretical Chemistry
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.Contents1 Overview 2 Branches of theoretical chemistry 3 Closely related disciplines 4 See also 5 BibliographyOverview[edit] Theoretical chemistry unites principles and concepts common to all branches of chemistry. Within the framework of theoretical chemistry, there is a systematization of chemical laws, principles and rules, their refinement and detailing, the construction of a hierarchy. The central place in theoretical chemistry is occupied by the doctrine of the interconnection of the structure and properties of molecular systems
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String Theory
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. Thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. String theory
String theory
is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics
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Atomic Physics
Atomic physics
Atomic physics
is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This comprises ions, neutral atoms and, unless otherwise stated, it can be assumed that the term atom includes ions.[citation needed] The term atomic physics can be associated with nuclear power and nuclear weapons, due to the synonymous use of atomic and nuclear in standard English. Physicists distinguish between atomic physics — which deals with the atom as a system consisting of a nucleus and electrons — and nuclear physics, which considers atomic nuclei alone. As with many scientific fields, strict delineation can be highly contrived and atomic physics is often considered in the wider context of atomic, molecular, and optical physics
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Nuclear Physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.[1] Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics
Particle physics
evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Particle Physics
Particle
Particle
physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model
Standard Model
and its various possible extensions, e.g
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Condensed Matter Physics
Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics
is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter,[1] where particles adhere to each other. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using physical laws. In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate
Bose–Einstein condensate
found in ultracold atomic systems
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Plasma (physics)
Plasma (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα​, meaning 'moldable substance'[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir[2] in the 1920s.[3]. Unlike the other three states, solid, liquid, and gas, plasma does not exist freely on the Earth's surface under normal conditions
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Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Classical physics
Classical physics
(the physics existing before quantum mechanics) is a set of fundamental theories which describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale
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Introduction To Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics
is the science of the very small. It explains the behavior of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. By contrast, classical physics only explains matter and energy on a scale familiar to human experience, including the behavior of astronomical bodies such as the Moon. Classical physics
Classical physics
is still used in much of modern science and technology
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Quantum Field Theory
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics. It is a set of notions and mathematical tools that combines classical fields, special relativity, and quantum mechanics,[1] and, when combined with the cluster decomposition principle,[2] it may be the only way to do so,[3] while retaining the ideas of quantum point particles and locality. QFT was historically widely believed to be truly fundamental. It is now believed, primarily due to the continued failures of quantization of general relativity, to be only a very good low-energy approximation, i.e. an effective field theory, to some more fundamental theory. QFT treats particles as excited states of an underlying field, so these are called field quanta
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Special Relativity
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time
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General Relativity
General relativity
General relativity
(GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915[2] and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity
General relativity
has been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.[3][4] General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to other forms of energy and work. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics
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Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic chemistry
Inorganic chemistry
deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry
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