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Box-drawing Characters
BOX-DRAWING CHARACTERS, also known as LINE-DRAWING CHARACTERS, are a form of SEMIGRAPHICS widely used in text user interfaces to draw various geometric frames and boxes. In graphical user interfaces , these characters are much less useful as it is more simple and appropriate to draw lines and rectangles directly with graphical APIs . Box-drawing characters work only with monospaced fonts ; however, they are still useful for plaintext comments on websites. Used along with box-drawing characters are BLOCK ELEMENTS , SHADE CHARACTERS, and TERMINAL GRAPHIC CHARACTERS. These can be used for filling regions of the screen and portraying drop shadows . CONTENTS* 1 Encodings * 1.1 Unicode
Unicode
* 1.2 DOS
DOS
* 1.3 Unix, CP/M, BBS * 1.4 Historical * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References ENCODINGSUNICODE Unicode
Unicode
includes 128 such characters
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Microcomputer
A MICROCOMPUTER is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board . Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors. The predecessors to these computers, mainframes and minicomputers , were comparatively much larger and more expensive (though indeed present-day mainframes such as the IBM System z machines use one or more custom microprocessors as their CPUs). Many microcomputers (when equipped with a keyboard and screen for input and output) are also personal computers (in the generic sense). The abbreviation micro was common during the 1970s and 1980s, but has now fallen out of common usage
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Commodore Business Machines
COMMODORE INTERNATIONAL (or Commodore International Limited) was a North American home computer and electronics manufacturer. Commodore International (CI), along with its subsidiary Commodore Business Machines (CBM), participated in the development of the home –personal computer industry in the 1970s and 1980s. The company developed and marketed the world's best-selling desktop computer, the Commodore 64 (1982), and released its Amiga computer line in July 1985. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Founding and early years * 1.2 "Computers for the masses, not the classes" * 1.3 Tramiel quits; the Amiga vs. ST battle * 1.4 Demise * 1.5 Post-Commodore International Ltd. * 2 Product line * 2.1 Calculators * 2.2 Computers * 2.3 Games consoles * 2.4 Monitors * 2.5 Software * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYFOUNDING AND EARLY YEARS Original Commodore logo: all-lowercase company name (1962–1984)
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PETSCII
PETSCII
PETSCII
(PET Standard Code of Information Interchange), also known as CBM ASCII, is the character set used in Commodore Business Machines (CBM) 's 8-bit home computers , starting with the PET from 1977 and including the C16 , C64 , C116 , C128 , CBM-II , Plus/4 , and VIC-20 . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Specifications * 3 Character set * 4 Base 128 * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe character set was largely designed by Leonard Tramiel (the son of Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel ) and PET designer Chuck Peddle . The graphic characters of PETSCII
PETSCII
were one of the extensions Commodore specified for Commodore BASIC
Commodore BASIC
when laying out desired changes to Microsoft's existing 6502 BASIC
BASIC
to Microsoft's Ric Weiland in 1977
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Sinclair ZX81
The ZX81 is a home computer produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Scotland by Timex Corporation . It was launched in the United Kingdom in March 1981 as the successor to Sinclair's ZX80 and was designed to be a low-cost introduction to home computing for the general public. It was hugely successful, and more than 1.5 million units were sold before it was discontinued. The ZX81 found commercial success in many other countries, notably the United States, where it was initially sold as the ZX-81. Timex manufactured and distributed it under licence and enjoyed a substantial but brief boom in sales. Timex later produced its own versions of the ZX81 for the US market – the Timex Sinclair 1000 and Timex Sinclair 1500 . Unauthorised clones of the ZX81 were produced in several countries. The ZX81 was designed to be small, simple, and above all cheap, using as few components as possible to keep the cost down
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Terminal Emulator
A TERMINAL EMULATOR, TERMINAL APPLICATION, or TERM, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. Though typically synonymous with a shell or text terminal , the term terminal covers all remote terminals, including graphical interfaces. A terminal emulator inside a graphical user interface is often called a TERMINAL WINDOW. A terminal window allows the user access to a text terminal and all its applications such as command-line interfaces (CLI) and text user interface (TUI) applications. These may be running either on the same machine or on a different one via telnet , ssh , or dial-up . On Unix-like operating systems, it is common to have one or more terminal windows connected to the local machine. Terminals usually support a set of escape sequences for controlling color, cursor position, etc
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Plus Sign
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e The PLUS AND MINUS SIGNS (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction . Their use has been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen ) ASS-kee ), :6 abbreviated from AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US- ASCII
ASCII
). ASCII
ASCII
codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment , and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII
ASCII
chart from a 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit)
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Underscore
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e The symbol UNDERSCORE (also called underline, underbar, low line, or low dash) is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words
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Equal Sign
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category * Portal * Book * v * t * e "=" and "=" redirect here. For double hyphens, see Double hyphen . For other uses, see Equals (other) . For technical reasons , ":=" redirects here. For the computer programming assignment operator, see Assignment (computer science) . For the definition symbol, see List of mathematical symbols § Symbols based on equality
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Sinclair Spectrum
The ZX SPECTRUM (UK : /zɛd ɛks ˈspɛktrəm/ ) is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research . It was manufactured in Dundee , Scotland, in the now closed Timex factory. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, it was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black and white of its predecessor, the ZX81 . The Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level with 16 KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 KB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987; together they sold in excess of 5 million units worldwide (not counting clones ). The Spectrum was among the first mainstream-audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the USA
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Teletext
TELETEXT (or BROADCAST TELETEXT) is a television information retrieval service created in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the early 1970s by the Philips
Philips
Lead Designer for VDUs, John Adams. Teletext
Teletext
is a means of sending pages of text and simple geometric shapes from mosaic blocks to a VBI decoder equipped television screen by use of a number of reserved vertical blanking interval lines that together form the dark band dividing pictures horizontally on the television screen. It offers a range of text-based information, typically including news, weather and TV schedules. Paged subtitle (or closed captioning ) information is also transmitted within the television signal
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Geometric Shapes
GEOMETRIC SHAPES is a Unicode block of 96 symbols at code point range U+25A0-25FF
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Text-based (computing)
Usually used in reference to a computer application , a TEXT-BASED APPLICATION is one whose primary input and output are based on text rather than graphics or sound. This does not mean that text-based applications do not have graphics or sound, just that the graphics or sound are secondary to the text. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Benefits of text-based software * 3 Limitations of text-based software * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYBefore the 1980s, most computers were text-based. The operator used the keyboard as the main input device to type in necessary commands into the terminal that could only display text on a low-resolution monochrome video monitor . The majority of end-user software was also written in text-based mode during this time. During this era, operating a computer was considered to be a challenging task because of the complexity of the text-based environment
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ANSI Art
ANSI ART is a computer art form that was widely used at one time on BBSes . It is similar to ASCII art
ASCII art
, but constructed from a larger set of 256 letters, numbers, and symbols — all codes found in IBM code page 437 , often referred to as extended ASCII and used in MS-DOS and Unix
Unix
environments. ANSI art also contains special ANSI escape sequences that color text with the 16 foreground and 8 background colours offered by ANSI.SYS , an MS-DOS device driver loosely based upon the ANSI X3.64 standard for text terminals . Some ANSI artists take advantage of the cursor control sequences within ANSI X3.64 in order to create animations, commonly referred to as ANSImations . ANSI art and text files which incorporate ANSI codes carry the de facto .ANS file extension
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