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Bowman's Capsule
Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule
(or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule
(i.e., glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine
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Embryology
Embryology
Embryology
(from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses
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Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
(from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a "surgical procedure", "operation", or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective "surgical" means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon's assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance
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Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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Amino Acid
Amino acids
Amino acids
are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.)
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Urea
50g/L ethanol ~4 g/L acetonitrile[3]Basicity (pKb) 13.9[4] Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-33.4·10−6 cm3/molStructureDipole moment4.56 DThermochemistryCRC HandbookStd enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)-79.634 kcal/molGibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)-47.12 kcal/molPharmacologyATC codeB05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet JT BakerNFPA 7041 2 0Flash point Non-flammableLethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)8500 mg/kg (oral, rat)Related compoundsRelated ureasThiourea HydroxycarbamideRelated compounds
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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Platelets
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (thromb- + -cyte, "blood clot cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.[1] Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes[2] of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures,[3][4] 2–3 µm in greatest diameter.[5] Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.[6]The ligands, denoted by letter L, signal for platelets (P) to migrate towards the wound (Site A). As more platelets gather around the opening, they produce more ligands to amplify the response
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Proteins
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Blood Plasma
Blood
Blood
plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume.[1] It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside cells). It is mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6–8%) (i.e.—serum albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen),[2] glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, Cl−, etc.), hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation) and oxygen. Plasma also serves as the protein reserve of the human body
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Renal Failure
Kidney
Kidney
failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term).[5] Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion.[1] Complications of acute disease may include uremia, high blood potassium, or volume overload.[2] Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.[3][4] Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medications, muscle breakdown, and he
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Anatomist
Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy
Anatomy
is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
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Dalton (unit)
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass). One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.[1] It is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state and at rest,[2] and has a value of 6973166053904000000♠1.660539040(20)×10−27 kg, or approximately 1.66 yoctograms.[3] The CIPM has categorised it as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI, and whose value in SI units must be obtained experimentally.[2] The amu without the "unified" prefix is technically an obsolete unit based on oxygen, which was replaced in 1961
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Eponym
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic. For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era, and "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to Henry Ford
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Marcello Malpighi
Marcello Malpighi
Marcello Malpighi
(10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology". Malpighi's name bears to several physiological features related to the biological excretory system, such as the Malpighian corpuscles and Malpighian pyramids of the kidneys and the Malpighian tubule system
Malpighian tubule system
of insects. The splenic lymphoid nodules are often called the "Malpighian bodies of the spleen" or Malpighian corpuscles. The botanical family Malpighiaceae
Malpighiaceae
is also named after him. He was the first person to see capillaries in animals, and he discovered the link between arteries and veins that had eluded William Harvey. Malpighi was one of the earliest people to observe red blood cells under a microscope, after Jan Swammerdam
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Physician
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice.[3] Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world
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