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Bourgeois Personality
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Polit
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Value-form
The VALUE-FORM or FORM OF VALUE (German : Wertform) is a concept in Karl Marx 's critique of political economy, Marxism and post-Marxism . It refers to the social form of a commodity (any product traded in markets) as a symbol of value, which contrasts with its physical features, as a product which can satisfy some human need. The physical appearance of a commodity is directly observable, but the meaning of its social form is not. Narrating the paradoxical oddities and metaphysical niceties of ordinary things when they become instruments of trade, Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such - what its substance really is, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed
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Surplus Value
SURPLUS VALUE is a central concept in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term: he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx's use of this concept is different, because for Marx, the Mehrwert refers to the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital. Hence, Marx's use of Mehrwert has always been translated as "surplus value", distinguishing it from "value-added". According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labor-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Marxist Sociology
MARXIST SOCIOLOGY is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective. Marxism itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology , particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical ) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class ." The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society". Marxist sociology would come to facilitate the developments of critical theory and cultural studies as loosely distinct disciplines
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Marx's Theory Of Alienation
KARL MARX\'S THEORY OF ALIENATION describes the estrangement (Ger. Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes . The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production , is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour
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Surplus Product
SURPLUS PRODUCT (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy . Marx first began to work out his idea of surplus product in his 1844 notes on James Mill 's Elements of political economy. Notions of "surplus produce" have been used in economic thought and commerce for a long time (notably by the Physiocrats ), but in Das Kapital , Theories of Surplus Value and the Grundrisse Marx gave the concept a central place in his interpretation of economic history. Nowadays the concept is mainly used in Marxian economics
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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Commodity (Marxism)
In classical political economy and especially Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy , a COMMODITY is any good or service ("products" or "activities" ) produced by human labour and offered as a product for general sale on the market. Some other priced goods are also treated as commodities, e.g. human labor-power , works of art and natural resources, even though they may not be produced specifically for the market, or be non-reproducible goods. Marx's analysis of the commodity (in German: Kaufware, i.e. merchandise, ware for sale) is intended to help solve the problem of what establishes the economic value of goods, using the labor theory of value . This problem was extensively debated by Adam Smith , David Ricardo , and Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow , among others
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Mode Of Production
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism , a MODE OF PRODUCTION (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of: * productive forces : these include human labour power and means of production (e.g. tools, equipment, buildings, technologies, knowledge, materials, and improved land). * social and technical relations of production : these include the property, power, and control relations governing society's productive assets (often codified in law), cooperative work relations and forms of association, relations between people and the objects of their work, and the relations between social classes.Marx regarded productive ability and participation in social relations as two essential characteristics of human beings and that the particular modality of these relations in capitalist production are inherently in conflict with the increasing development of human productive capacities
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Law Of Value
The LAW OF VALUE (German: Wertgesetz) is a central concept in Karl Marx 's critique of political economy , first expounded in his polemic The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) against Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , with reference to David Ricardo 's economics. Most generally, it refers to a regulative principle of the economic exchange of the products of human work: the relative exchange-values of those products in trade, usually expressed by money-prices, are proportional to the average amounts of human labor-time which are currently socially necessary to produce them. Thus, the fluctuating exchange value of commodities (exchangeable products) is regulated by their value, where the magnitude of their value is determined by the average quantity of human labour which is currently socially necessary to produce them (see labor theory of value and value-form )
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Scientific Socialism
SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM is the term first used by Friedrich Engels to describe the social-political-economic theory first pioneered by Karl Marx . The purported reason why this form of socialism is "scientific socialism" (as opposed to "utopian socialism ") is that it is said to be based on the scientific method , in that its theories are held to an empirical standard, observations are essential to its development, and these can result in changes and/or falsification of elements of the theory. Although the term socialism has come to mean specifically a combination of political and economic science, it is also applicable to a broader area of science encompassing what is now considered sociology and the humanities . The distinction between utopian and scientific socialism originated with Marx, who criticized the utopian characteristics of French socialism and English and Scottish political economy
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Base And Superstructure
In Marxist theory , human society consists of two parts: the BASE (or SUBSTRUCTURE) and SUPERSTRUCTURE; the base comprises the forces and relations of production —employer–employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture , institutions , political power structures , roles , rituals , and state . The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism , the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship
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Class In Marxist Theory
In Marxism, MARXIAN CLASS THEORY asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Immiseration Thesis
In Marxist theory and Marxian economics , the IMMISERATION THESIS (also referred to as EMISERATION THESIS) is derived from Karl Marx's analysis of economic development in capitalism , implying that the nature of capitalist production stabilizes real wages , reducing wage growth relative to total value creation in the economy, leading to worsening alienation in the workplace. The immiseration thesis is related to Marx's analysis of the rising organic composition of capital and reduced demand for labor relative to capital equipment as technology develops
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Marx's Theory Of Human Nature
Some Marxists posit what they deem to be KARL MARX\'S THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE, which they accord an important place in his critique of capitalism , his conception of communism , and his 'materialist conception of history '. Marx , however, does not refer to human nature as such, but to Gattungswesen, which is generally translated as 'species-being' or 'species-essence'. According to a note from the young Marx in the Manuscripts of 1844 , the term is derived from Ludwig Feuerbach ’s philosophy, in which it refers both to the nature of each human and of humanity as a whole. However, in the sixth Theses on Feuerbach
Theses on Feuerbach
(1845), Marx criticizes the traditional conception of human nature as species which incarnates itself in each individual, instead arguing that the conception of human nature is formed by the totality of social relations
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