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Bottled Gas
Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or composite bottles known as gas cylinders. There are four cases: either the substance remains a gas at standard temperature but increased pressure, the substance liquefies at standard temperature but increased pressure, the substance is dissolved in a solvent, or the substance is liquefied at reduced temperature and increased pressure. In the last case the bottle is constructed with an inner and outer shell separated by a vacuum (dewar flask) so that the low temperature can be maintained by evaporative cooling.

### Case I

The substance remains a gas at standard temperature and increased pressure, its critical temperature being below standard temperature
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Acetone
Acetone, or propanone, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[15] It is the simplest and smallest ketone. It is a colourless, highly volatile and flammable liquid with a characteristic pungent odour. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important organic solvent in its own right, in industry, home, and laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[16][17] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner
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Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health.[40] In addition, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere can influence the habitat suitability for plant communities, as well as animal life.[41] Sulfur dioxide emissions are a precursor to acid rain and atmospheric particulates. Due largely to the US EPA's Acid Rain Program, the U.S. has had a 33% decrease in emissions between 1983 and 2002. This improvement resulted in part from flue-gas desulfurization, a technology that enables SO2 to be chemically bound in power plants burning sulfur-containing coal or oil
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Fuming Sulfuric Acid
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a term referring to solutions of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid). Oleum is identified by the CAS number 8014-95-7 (EC/List number: 616-954-1 ; ECHA InfoCard: 100.116.872). Oleums can be described by the formula ySO3·H2O where y is the total molar mass of sulfur trioxide content. The value of y can be varied, to include different oleums. They can also be described by the formula H2SO4·xSO3 where x is now defined as the molar free sulfur trioxide content. Oleum is generally assessed according to the free SO3 content by mass. It can also be expressed as a percentage of sulfuric acid strength; for oleum concentrations, that would be over 100%. For example, 10% oleum can also be expressed as H2SO4·0.13611SO3, 1.13611SO3·H2O or 102.25% sulfuric acid
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Red Fuming Nitric Acid
Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) is a storable oxidizer used as a rocket propellant. It consists of 84% nitric acid (HNO3), 13% dinitrogen tetroxide and 1–2% water.[1] The color of red fuming nitric acid is due to the dinitrogen tetroxide, which breaks down partially to form nitrogen dioxide. The nitrogen dioxide dissolves until the liquid is saturated, and produces toxic fumes with a suffocating odor. RFNA increases the flammability of combustible materials and is highly exothermic when reacting with water. It is usually used with an inhibitor (with various, sometimes secret, substances, including hydrogen fluoride;[2] any such combination is called inhibited RFNA, IRFNA) because nitric acid attacks most container materials
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Hydrogen Chloride

The infrared spectrum of gaseous hydrogen chloride, shown on the left, consists of a number of sharp absorption lines grouped around 2886 cm−1 (wavelength ~3.47 µm). At room temperature, almost all molecules are in the ground vibrational state v = 0. Including anharmonicity the vibrational energy can be written as.

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Acetylene
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne.[5] This colorless gas (lower hydrocarbons are generally gaseous in nature) is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is unstable in its pure form and thus is usually handled as a solution.[6] Pure acetylene is odorless, but commercial grades usually have a marked odor due to impurities.[7] As an alkyne, acetylene is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond
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Dimethylformamide
Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated as DMF (although this initialism is sometimes used for dimethylfuran, or dimethyl fumarate), this colourless liquid is miscible with water and the majority of organic liquids. DMF is a common solvent for chemical reactions. Dimethylformamide is odorless, but technical-grade or degraded samples often have a fishy smell due to impurity of dimethylamine. Dimethylamine degradation impurities can be removed by sparging degraded samples with an inert gas such as argon or by sonicating the samples under reduced pressure. As its name indicates, it is a derivative of formamide, the amide of formic acid. DMF is a polar (hydrophilic) aprotic solvent with a high boiling point
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Nitrous Oxide

Nitrous oxide has significant global warming potential as a greenhouse gas. On a per-molecule basis, considered over a 100-year period, nitrous oxide has 298 times the atmospheric heat-trapping ability of carbon dioxide (CO
2
);[116][117] however, because of its low concentration (less than 1/1,000 of that of CO
2
),[98] its contribution to the greenhouse effect is less than one third that of carbon dioxide, and also less than water vapour and methane
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