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Bottike
BOTTIKE or Bottice (Greek: Βοττική) was a western region of ancient Chalcidice, inhabited by Bottiaeans , who, were expelled from their homeland Bottiaea
Bottiaea
by Macedonians sometime in the Archaic period . Their chief polis was Spartolos . Bottiaeans were members and allies of the Delian League . In 432 they revolted from Athens, along with the Chalkidian League , but in 422 they entered in an alliance with the Athenians. It seems from the inscriptions that they had formed a confederacy (koinon ) and struck silver and bronze coins. There were between six and twelve Bottiaean cities but not all of them inside Bottike. According to Herodotus (8.127) Olynthus , close to Bottike, was originally a Bottiaean community
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Thucydides
THUCYDIDES (/θjuːˈsɪdᵻdiːz/ ; Ancient Greek : Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs, ; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian historian and general . His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work. He has also been called the father of the school of political realism , which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by and constructed upon the emotions of fear and self-interest . His text is still studied at both universities and military colleges worldwide
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Olynthus
OLYNTHUS ( Ancient Greek : Ὄλυνθος Olynthos, named for the ὄλυνθος olunthos, the fruit of the wild fig tree ) was an ancient city of Chalcidice , built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone , near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene , about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia (c. 9–10 kilometers) from Poteidaea . Artefacts found during the excavations of the site are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Olynthos . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Topography and archaeology * 3 Notable people * 4 Modern Olynthos * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links HISTORY Olynthus , son of Heracles, or the river god Strymon , was considered the mythological founder of the town
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Xenophon
XENOPHON OF ATHENS (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/ ; Greek : Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: , Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher , historian , soldier and mercenary, and a student of Socrates
Socrates
. As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, such as the Hellenica , about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC); as such, the Hellenica is a thematic continuation of Thucydides
Thucydides
' History of the Peloponnesian War . As a mercenary soldier of the Ten Thousand , he participated in the failed campaign of Cyrus the Younger , to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia , and recounts the events in Anabasis , his most notable history
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Philip II Of Macedon
PHILIP II OF MACEDON (Greek : Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king ( Basileus
Basileus
) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
of Macedonian kings , the third son of King Amyntas III , and father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip III . The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army
Ancient Macedonian army
, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Chalcidian League
The CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE (Greek : Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the OLYNTHIANS or the CHALCIDIANS IN THRACE (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs ) to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea
Euboea
, was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice
Chalcidice
peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
in 348 BCE
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Chalkidian League
The CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE (Greek : Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the OLYNTHIANS or the CHALCIDIANS IN THRACE (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs ) to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea , was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea , from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Internal organization * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Sources HISTORY Further information: History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Macedonia and the Chalcidice In the spring of 432 BCE, during the first phase of the Peloponnesian War , several cities of Chalcidice broke away from the Athenian -dominated Delian League
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Macedon
MACEDONIA or MACEDON (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/ , Ancient: , Greek : Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece
Classical Greece
, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece . The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians , the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula , and bordered by Epirus
Epirus
to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace
Thrace
to the east and Thessaly
Thessaly
to the south
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Archaic Greece
ARCHAIC GREECE was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
and succeeded by the Classical period . The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning. According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture
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Polis
POLIS (/ˈpɒlᵻs/ ; Greek : πόλις pronounced ), plural POLEIS (/ˈpɒleɪz/ , πόλεις ), literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states , like Classical Athens
Classical Athens
and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state ". The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin
Latin
word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity. The term "city-state", which originated in English (alongside the German Stadtstaat), does not fully translate the Greek term
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Delian League
The DELIAN LEAGUE, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states , members numbering between 150, 173, to 330 under the leadership of Athens , whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece . The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos , where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC. Shortly after its inception, Athens began to use the League's navy for its own purposes – which led to its naming by historians as the ATHENIAN EMPIRE. This behavior frequently led to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the League
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Spartolos
SPARTOLOS (Greek : Σπάρτωλος) was the chief city of the Bottiaeans , perhaps in Bottike , North-West Chalcidice . It was a member of the Delian League under the Thracian phoros , paying 2 or 3,5 talents , until the beginning of the Peloponnesian War , when the Bottiaean and the Chalkidian League revolted against Athens (Battle of Spartolos , 429 BC). It seems however that sometime later it became again an Athenian allied member. It is mentioned again in connection with the Spartan Teleutias ' attack on Olynthus in 381 BC. The last mention of Spartolos is not as a city but among other agricultural territories (ca.305-297 BC) in a royal decree of Cassander about land leasing to a certain Perdikkas son of Koinos (the lands had partly been awarded by Philip II to Polemokrates, his grandfather). REFERENCES * ^ Meletemata 22, Epig. App. 20 * ^ Kings and colonists: aspects of Macedonian imperialism By Richard A
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Bottiaea
BOTTIAEA (Greek : Βοττιαία Bottiaia) was a geographical region of ancient Macedonia and an administrative district of the Macedonian Kingdom
Macedonian Kingdom
. It was previously inhabited by the Bottiaeans , a people of uncertain origin, later expelled by the Macedonians into Bottike (Chalcidice). In Roman times it was replaced by Emathia as a geographical term. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Towns * 3 References * 4 External links GEOGRAPHY Bottiaea
Bottiaea
comprised the northeastern part of Imathia
Imathia
and the area between the Loudias and the Axios Rivers (the western area of today's Giannitsa )
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Bottiaeans
BOTTIAEANS or Bottiaei (Greek: Βοττιαῖοι) were an ancient people of uncertain origin, living in Central Macedonia . Sometime, during the Archaic period, they were expelled by Macedonians from Bottiaea to Bottike . During the Classical era, they played an active role in the military history of ancient Chalcidice , but after the Macedonian conquest under Philip II nothing remained except the names of these two regions and the adjective Bottiaean , which was limited to sole geographical meaning. Unlike other tribes of Macedonia ruled by kings or living in villages, Bottiaeans developed some polis form of self-government. Unfortunately, no Bottiaean individual is known to us and the limited historical or archaeological sources shed no further light
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