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Bottike
Bottike
Bottike
or Bottice (Greek: Βοττική) was a western region of ancient Chalcidice, inhabited by Bottiaeans, who, were expelled from their homeland Bottiaea
Bottiaea
by Macedonians sometime in the Archaic period . Their chief polis was Spartolos. Bottiaeans were members and allies of the Delian League. In 432 they revolted from Athens, along with the Chalkidian League, but in 422 they entered in an alliance with the Athenians. It seems from the inscriptions that they had formed a confederacy (koinon) and struck silver and bronze coins. There were between six and twelve Bottiaean cities but not all of them inside Bottike
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Macedon
Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen)) or Macedon (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece,[4] and later the dominant state of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Greece.[5] The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties
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Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
Greece
was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC,[1] following the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population[2] and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning.[3] According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world
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Polis
Polis
Polis
(/ˈpɒlɪs/; Greek: πόλις pronounced [pólis]), plural poleis (/ˈpɒleɪz/, πόλεις [póleːs]), literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens
Classical Athens
and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state". These cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra). The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin
Latin
word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity
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Delian League
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC,[1] was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150,[2] 173,[3] to 330 [4] under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire
Empire
after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea
Battle of Plataea
at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern[5] name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture,[6] Pericles
Pericles
moved it to Athens in 454 BC.[7] Shortly after its inception, Athens began to use the League's navy for its own purposes – which led to its naming by historians as the Athenian Empire. This behavior frequently led to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the League
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Chalkidian League
The Chalcidian League (Greek: Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians[1] or the Chalcidians in Thrace (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs)[2] to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea,[3] was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.Contents1 History 2 Internal organization 3 See also 4 Notes 5 SourcesHistory[edit] Further information: History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)Macedonia and the ChalcidiceIn the spring of 432 BCE, during the first phase of the Peloponnesian War, several cities of Chalcidice broke away from the Athenian-dominated Delian League
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Chalcidian League
The Chalcidian League (Greek: Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians[1] or the Chalcidians in Thrace (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs)[2] to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea,[3] was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.Contents1 History 2 Internal organization 3 See also 4 Notes 5 SourcesHistory[edit] Further information: History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)Macedonia and the ChalcidiceIn the spring of 432 BCE, during the first phase of the Peloponnesian War, several cities of Chalcidice broke away from the Athenian-dominated Delian League
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Olynthus
Olynthus
Olynthus
(Ancient Greek: Ὄλυνθος Olynthos, named for the ὄλυνθος olunthos, "the fruit of the wild fig tree"[1]) was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia (c. 9–10 kilometers) from Poteidaea.[2][3] Artefacts found during the excavations of the site are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Olynthos.Contents1 History 2 Topography and archaeology 3 Notable people 4 Modern Olynthos 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksHistory[edit] Olynthus, son of Heracles, or the river god Strymon, was considered the mythological founder of the town. The South Hill bore a small Neolithic
Neolithic
settlement; was abandoned during the Bronze Age; and was resettled in the 7th century BC
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Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides
(/θjuːˈsɪdɪdiːz/; Ancient Greek: Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs, [tʰuːkydídɛːs]; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian
Athenian
historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War
History of the Peloponnesian War
recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta
Sparta
and Athens
Athens
until the year 411 BC
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Xenophon
Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.[1] As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), he also participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II of Persia
and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history
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Philip II Of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon[2] (Greek: Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip III. The rise of Macedon
Macedon
during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx
Macedonian phalanx
that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Bottiaea
Bottiaea
Bottiaea
(Greek: Βοττιαία Bottiaia) was a geographical region of ancient Macedonia and an administrative district of the Macedonian Kingdom. It was previously inhabited by the Bottiaeans, a people of uncertain origin, later expelled by the Macedonians into Bottike (Chalcidice)
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Spartolos
Spartolos (Greek: Σπάρτωλος) was the chief city of the Bottiaeans, perhaps in Bottike, North-West Chalcidice. It was a member of the Delian League
Delian League
under the Thracian phoros, paying 2 or 3,5 talents, until the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, when the Bottiaean and the Chalkidian League
Chalkidian League
revolted against Athens (Battle of Spartolos, 429 BC). It seems however that sometime later it became again an Athenian allied member
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Bottiaeans
Bottiaeans or Bottiaei (Ancient Greek: Βοττιαῖοι) were an ancient people of uncertain origin, living in Central Macedonia. Sometime, during the Archaic period, they were expelled by Macedonians from Bottiaea
Bottiaea
to Bottike. During the Classical era, they played an active role in the military history of ancient Chalcidice, but after the Macedonian conquest under Philip II nothing remained except the names of these two regions and the adjective Bottiaean, which was limited to sole geographical meaning. Unlike other tribes of Macedonia ruled by kings or living in villages, Bottiaeans developed some polis form of self-government
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