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Botox
Botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin
(BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
and related species.[1] It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and research. Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled.[2] There are eight types of botulinum toxin, named type A–H
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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Intramuscularly
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration)
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Axon
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands. In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve fibers and the electrical impulse travels along these from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon. Axon
Axon
dysfunction has caused many inherited and acquired neurological disorders which can affect both the peripheral and central neurons. Nerve
Nerve
fibers are classed into three types – group A nerve fibers, group B nerve fibers, and group C nerve fibers. Groups A and B are myelinated, and group C are unmyelinated
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Flaccid Paralysis
Flaccid paralysis is an illness characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).[1] This abnormal condition may be caused by disease or by trauma affecting the nerves associated with the involved muscles. For example, if the somatic nerves to a skeletal muscle are severed, then the muscle will exhibit flaccid paralysis. When muscles enter this state, they become limp and cannot contract
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Nanogram
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.Contents1 Units of mass1.1 Other units 1.2 Below 10−21 g 1.3 10−19 to 10−16 g 1.4 10−12 to 10−7 g 1.5 10−9 to 10−4 g 1.6 0.001 grams to 1 gram  1.7 1,000 grams to 100 tonnes 1.8 106 to 1011 kg 1.9 1012 to 1017 kg 1.10 1018 to 1023 kg 1.11 1024 to 1029 kg 1.12 1030 to 1035 kg 1.13 1036 to 1041 kg 1.14 1042 kg and greater2 Notes 3 External linksUnits of mass[edit]SI multiples for gram (g)SubmultiplesMultiplesValue SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne)10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram<
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Intravenously
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
(IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips
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Muscle Spasm
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle,[1] a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart. A spasmodic muscle contraction may be caused by many medical conditions, including dystonia. Most commonly, it is a muscle cramp which is accompanied by a sudden burst of pain. A muscle cramp is usually harmless and ceases after a few minutes
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The National Center for Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper. The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank
GenBank
for DNA
DNA
sequences and PubMed, a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database
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Vocal Cords
plica vocali sMeSH D014827TA A06.2.09.013FMA 55457Anatomical terminology [edit on Wikidata] Vocal folds
Vocal folds
(open) Vocal folds
Vocal folds
(speaking)The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx
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Detrusor
Sympathetic - hypogastric n. (T10-L2) Parasympathetic - pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-4)ActionsSympathetic relaxes, to store urine Parasympathetic contracts, to urinateIdentifiersLatin musculus detrusor vesicae urinariaeTA A08.3.01.014FMA 68018Anatomical terms of muscle [edit on Wikidata]The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder
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Urinary Bladder
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination
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Strabismus
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.[2] The eye which is focused on an object can alternate.[3] The condition may be present occasionally or constantly.[3] If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception.[3] If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision.[3] Strabismus
Strabismus
can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma, or infections.[3] Risk factors include premature birth, cerebral pa
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Medicines And Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
The Medicines
Medicines
and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe. MHRA was formed in 2003 with the merger of the Medicines
Medicines
Control Agency (MCA) and the Medical Devices Agency (MDA). In April 2013, it merged with the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) and was rebranded, with MHRA identity being used solely for the regulatory centre within the group
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