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Boscobel House
BOSCOBEL HOUSE (grid reference SJ837082) is a Grade II* listed building in the parish of Boscobel
Boscobel
in Shropshire . It has been, at various times, a farmhouse, a hunting lodge, and a holiday home; but it is most famous for its role in the escape of Charles II after the Battle of Worcester in 1651
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Upper Normandy
UPPER NORMANDY (French : Haute-Normandie, IPA: ; Norman : Ĥâote-Normaundie) was an administrative region of France
France
. On 1 January 2016, Upper and Lower Normandy
Normandy
merged becoming one region called Normandy
Normandy
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Major communities * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIt was created in 1956 from two departments : Seine-Maritime and Eure , when Normandy
Normandy
was divided into Lower Normandy
Normandy
and Upper Normandy. This division continued to provoke controversy, and many people continued to call for the two regions to be reunited. The two regions were finally merged on 1 January 2016
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Osbern Giffard
OSBERN (OR OSBORNE) GIFFARD (c. 1020, Longueville-le-Giffard, Duchy of Normandy (now Longueville-sur-Scie , France ) – c. 1085 Brimpsfield , Gloucestershire ) was one of the knights who invaded England in 1066 under William the Conqueror . He was rewarded with holdings throughout Gloucestershire, Hampshire , Wiltshire and Somerset . He settled in Brimpsfield, where he built a castle which was destroyed by Edward II in 1322. It is believed that the Gloucestershire village of Stoke Gifford is named after him. Giffard's nephew, Walter became the 1st Earl of Buckingham . FAMILYGiffard was a son of Osborn (or Osberne or Osborne or Osbern) de Bolebec , Lord of Longueville-le-Giffard by either Avelina or Wevia, sisters of Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy . One of Giffard's siblings was Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville . His notable descendants include the sons of Hugh Giffard of Boyton in Wiltshire: Walter Giffard and Godfrey Giffard
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Walter Giffard, 1st Earl Of Buckingham
WALTER GIFFARD, LORD OF LONGUEVILLE IN NORMANDY, 1ST EARL OF BUCKINGHAM (died 1102) was an Anglo-Norman magnate . He was the son of Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville (one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066) and Ermengarde daughter of Gerald Flaitel. His father had been given 107 lordships, 48 of which were in Buckinghamshire which Giffard inherited by 1085. The caput of his feudal honor was at Crendon , Buckinghamshire. He held an important castle at Longueville overlooking the River Scie as well as vast estates in Buckinghamshire. As he held lands in both England and Normandy he was a vassal to both Robert Curthose and William Rufus . But Rufus purchased his loyalty along with several other key cross-Channel barons and fortified Giffard's and the other castles, garrisoning them with knights in the king's employ who could now ravage northeastern Normandy
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William The Conqueror
WILLIAM I (c. 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR and sometimes WILLIAM THE BASTARD, was the first Norman King of England
King of England
, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo , he was Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
(as WILLIAM II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Bolbec
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. BOLBEC is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France . Its inhabitants are called Bolbécais or Bolbécaises. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Bolbec today * 2.2 Heraldry * 3 Economy * 3.1 Industry * 4 Sights * 5 Notable people * 6 Twin towns * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography GEOGRAPHYA farming , quarrying and light industrial town situated at the heart of three valleys in the Pays de Caux , some 19 miles (31 km) northeast of Le Havre . It is the source of the river Commerce , though here it is known as the river Bolbec. The town has many small lanes (ruelles) with some pretty houses
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Housewarming Party
A HOUSE-WARMING PARTY is a party traditionally held soon after moving into a new residence . It is an occasion for the hosts to present their new home to their friends, post-moving, and for friends to give gifts to furnish the new home. House-warming parties are generally informal. Usually there are no planned activities besides a possible tour. CONTENTS * 1 Etiquette
Etiquette
* 2 Origins * 3 In French-speaking countries * 4 Variations * 4.1 Regional * 4.2 Other * 5 References ETIQUETTEIt is considered proper etiquette to invite guests at least a few days, or up to three weeks, in advance. Gifts are customarily necessary
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Chillington Hall
CHILLINGTON HALL is a Georgian country house near Brewood
Brewood
, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
, England
England
, four miles northwest of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
. It is the residence of the Giffard family. The Grade I listed
Grade I listed
house was designed by Francis Smith in 1724 and John Soane
John Soane
in 1785. The park and lake were landscaped by Capability Brown
Capability Brown
. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, Chillington (Cillintone) is entered under Warwickshire
Warwickshire
as forming part of the estates of William FitzCorbucion. His grandson Peter Corbesun of Studley granted Chillington to Peter Giffard, his wife's nephew, for a sum of 25 marks and a charger of metal. The present house is the third on the site
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Gentry
GENTRY (from Old French
Old French
genterie, from gentil, "high-born, noble") are "well-born, genteel and well-bred people" of high social class , especially in the past. Gentry, in its widest connotation, refers to people of good social position connected to landed estates (see manorialism ), upper levels of the clergy , and "gentle" families of long descent who never obtained the official right to bear a coat of arms . In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the term often refers to the social class of the landed aristocracy or to the minor aristocracy (see landed gentry ) whose income derives from their large landholdings. The idea of gentry in the continental sense of "noblesse " is extinct in common parlance in modern-day Britain, despite the efforts of enthusiasts to revive it. Though the untitled nobility in modern-day Britain are normally termed gentry, the older sense of "nobility" is that of a quality identical to gentry
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Hudson River
The HUDSON RIVER is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York
Upstate New York
, flows through the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
, and eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, between New York City
New York City
and Jersey City
Jersey City
. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey
New Jersey
and New York, and further north between New York counties . The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary occupying the Hudson Fjord , which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation , estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as Troy
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Madeley, Shropshire
MADELEY is a town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, now part of the new town of Telford
Telford
. The parish had a population of 17,935 at the 2001 census. Madeley is recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, having been founded before the 8th century. Historically, Madeley's industrial activity has largely been in mining, and later, manufacturing, which is still a large employer in the town, along with service industries. Parts of the parish fall within the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
of Ironbridge Gorge , the site of The Iron Bridge
The Iron Bridge
, and a key area in the development of Industry
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Recusants
RECUSANCY was the state of those who refused to attend Anglican services during the history of England and Wales
England and Wales
; these individuals were known as recusants. The term, which derives ultimately from the Latin recusare (to refuse or make an objection) was first used to refer to those who remained loyal to the pope and the Roman Catholic Church and who did not attend Church of England
Church of England
services, with a 1593 statute determining the penalties against "Popish recusants". The " Recusancy
Recusancy
Acts" began during the reign of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
and were repealed in 1650. They imposed various types of punishment on those who did not participate in Anglican religious activity, such as fines, property confiscation, and imprisonment
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Catholics
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church
Christian Church
, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Jane Lane, Lady Fisher
JANE LANE (c. 1626 – 9 September 1689) played a heroic role in the Escape of Charles II in 1651. The main significance of the story is the key part that the escape played in forming the character and the opinions of Charles. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 The ride to Bristol with Charles II * 3 Bristol to Trent * 4 Jane\'s exile * 5 Restoration * 6 In fiction * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINSJane was the daughter of Thomas Lane and Anne Bagot of the parish of Bentley and Hyde (near Walsall ). Her parents had married at Blithfield , Staffordshire in 1608. Their son, John, was born on April 8, 1609, the first child of what was to be four sons and five daughters. There are several early christening dates for a Jane Lane in the International Genealogical Index which have been estimated by contributors, most probably based on a spurious date for her marriage. However she was known as Jane LANE in 1651 and so was unmarried at that date
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Bentley, West Midlands
BENTLEY is an area in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall located around Junction 10 of the M6 Motorway . It shares borders with the areas of Willenhall , Beechdale , Ashmore Park , Pleck , Darlaston and Alumwell . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Local points of interest * 3 Public transport * 4 Education * 5 Bibliography HISTORYBentley is noted for its involvement in the English civil war , when in 1651 King Charles II took shelter with the Lane Family in Bentley Hall while attempting to escape to exile . Jane Lane famously helped the King escape by disguising him as a servant. Bentley Cairn marks the location of Bentley Hall upon the hill. The Cairn has recently undergone improvements, carried out by the Bentley Cairn Restoration Group
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Puritan
The PURITANS were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
Church of England
from its "Catholic " practices, maintaining that the Church of England
Church of England
was only partially reformed
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