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Borrelia Burgdorferi
Borrelia
Borrelia
burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B
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Platelet
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (thromb- + -cyte, "blood clot cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.[1] Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes[2] of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures,[3][4] 2–3 µm in greatest diameter.[5] Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.[6]The ligands, denoted by letter L, signal for platelets (P) to migrate towards the wound (Site A). As more platelets gather around the opening, they produce more ligands to amplify the response
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Arthritis
Arthritis
Arthritis
is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.[2] Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness.[2] Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints.[2][3] In some types other organs are also affected.[6] Onset can be gradual or sudden.[5] There are over 100 types of arthritis.[4][5] The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis.[6] Os
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Larvae
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Midgut
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop. After it bends around the superior mesenteric artery, it is called the "midgut loop". It comprises the portion of the alimentary canal from the end of the foregut at the opening of the bile duct to the hindgut, about two-thirds of the way through the transverse colon.Contents1 In the embryo 2 In the adult2.1 Organs in the adult midgut 2.2 Vascular, lymphatics and innervation3 Clinical significance 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIn the embryo[edit] Further information: Development of the digestive system During development, the human midgut undergoes a rapid phase of growth in which the loop of midgut herniates outside of the abdominal cavity of the fetus and protrudes into the umbilical cord
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Nymph (biology)
In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis (hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage.[1] Unlike a typical larva, a nymph's overall form already resembles that of the adult, except for a lack of wings (in winged species). In addition, while a nymph moults it never enters a pupal stage. Instead, the final moult results in an adult insect.[2] Nymphs undergo multiple stages of development called instars. This is the case, for example, in Orthoptera
Orthoptera
(crickets and grasshoppers), Hemiptera
Hemiptera
(cicadas, shield bugs, etc.), mayflies, termites, cockroaches, mantises, stoneflies and Odonata
Odonata
(dragonflies and damselflies).[3] Nymphs of aquatic insects, as in the Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and Plecoptera, are also called naiads, an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
name for mythological water nymphs
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Overwinters
Overwintering is the process by which some organisms pass through or wait out the winter season, or pass through that period of the year when "winter" conditions (cold or sub-zero temperatures, ice, snow, limited food supplies) make normal activity or even survival difficult or near impossible. In some cases "winter" is characterized not necessarily by cold but by dry conditions; passing through such periods could likewise be called overwintering. Hibernation and migration are the two major ways in which overwintering is accomplished. Overwintering occurs in several classes of lifeform:In entomology, overwintering is how an insect passes the winter season. Many insects overwinter as adults, pupae, or eggs. This can be done inside buildings, under tree bark, or beneath fallen leaves or other plant matter on the ground, among other places. All such overwintering sites shield the insect from adverse conditions associated with winter
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Vector (epidemiology)
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism;[1][2] most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.[3]Contents1 Arthropods 2 Plants and fungi 3 World Health Organization
World Health Organization
and vector-borne disease 4 Vector-borne zoonotic disease and human activity 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksArthropods[edit]The deer tick, a vector for Lyme disease
Lyme disease
pathogens.Arthropods form a major group of pathogen vectors with mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites transmitting a huge number of pathogens. Many such vectors are haematophagous, which feed on blood at some or all stages of their lives. When the insects blood feed, the pathogen enters the blood stream of the host
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Tick
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes. Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari. Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians. Ticks had evolved by the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, the most common form of fossilisation being immersed in amber. Ticks are widely distributed around the world, especially in warm, humid climates. Almost all ticks belong to one of two major families, the Ixodidae
Ixodidae
or hard ticks, which are difficult to crush, and the Argasidae
Argasidae
or soft ticks. Adults have ovoid or pear-shaped bodies which become engorged with blood when they feed, and eight legs. As well as having a hard shield on their dorsal surfaces, hard ticks have a beak-like structure at the front containing the mouthparts whereas soft ticks have their mouthparts on the underside of the body
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Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy
is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.[8] Early on there may be few or no symptoms.[1] Some people may have shortness of breath, feel tired, or have swelling of the legs due to heart failure.[1] An irregular heart beat may occur as well as fainting.[1] Those affected are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.[2] Types of cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy (broken he
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Arrythmia
Heart arrhythmia
Heart arrhythmia
also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.[2] A heart rate that is too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per minute – is called bradycardia.[2] Many types of arrhythmia have no symptoms.[1] When symptoms are present these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats.[1] More seriously there may be lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath, or chest pain.[1] While
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Arthralgia
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain;[1][2] it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.[3] According to MeSH, the term "arthralgia" should only be used when the condition is non-inflammatory, and the term "arthritis" should be used when the condition is inflammatory.[4]Contents1 Causes 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 See also 5 ReferencesCauses[edit] The causes of arthralgia are varied and range, from a joints perspective, from degenerative and destructive processes such as osteoarthritis and sports injuries to inflammation of tissues surrounding the joints, such as bursitis.[5] These might be triggered by other things, such as infections or vaccinations.[6]Cause Mono- or polyarticular Speed of onsetRheumatoid
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Neuropathies
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), hyperglycemia-induced glycation,[1][2][3] vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including metronidazole and the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury, including ischemia, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection
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Heart
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.[1] Blood
Blood
provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes.[2] In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.[3] In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles.[4][5] Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart.[6] Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers.[5] In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.[3] The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid
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Anaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis
is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma
Anaplasma
spp. The microorganism is gram-negative,[1] and infects red blood cells.[2] It is transmitted by natural means through a number of haematophagous species of ticks
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