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Boris Volynov
Boris Valentinovich Volynov (Russian: Бори́с Валенти́нович Волы́нов; born 18 December 1934) is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was the first Jewish cosmonaut.Contents1 Biography 2 Career2.1 Voskhod 1 2.2 Voskhod 3 2.3 Soyuz 5 2.4 Soyuz 213 Honours and awards 4 Family 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
(left) and Boris Volynov
Boris Volynov
(right) on picnic in DolgoprudnyVolynov was born in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in Siberia, but then his family relocated, and he finished secondary school in Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo Oblast, in 1952. The next year he completed basic pilot training in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, and in 1955 graduated from an aviation school in Novosibirsk
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Aleksei Yeliseyev
Aleksei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev (Russian: Алексей Станиславович Елисеев; born July 13, 1934) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three missions in the Soyuz programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 5, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10. Aleksei's father was Lithuanian with the last name Kuraitis, who died in the Soviet's Gulag
Gulag
as a enemy of the people.[1] Aleksei uses his mother's last name "Yeliseyev" [2] [3] so some regard him as also being a Lithuanian cosmonaut
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Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev[a] (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971)[1][2] was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during part of the Cold War
Cold War
as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev
Khrushchev
was responsible for the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy
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Voskhod 3
The Voskhod programme (Russian: Восхо́д, IPA: [vɐsˈxot], Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project. Two one-day manned missions were flown using the Voskhod spacecraft and rocket, one in 1964 and one in 1965, and two dogs flew on a 22-day mission in 1966. Voskhod development was both a follow-on to the Vostok programme and a recycling of components left over from that programme's cancellation following its first six flights. The Voskhod programme was superseded by the Soyuz programme.Contents1 Design 2 Flights2.1 Unmanned 2.2 Manned 2.3 Cancelled3 Results 4 References 5 External linksDesign[edit] The Voskhod spacecraft was basically a Vostok spacecraft that had a backup, solid-fueled retrorocket added to the top of the descent module. As it was much heavier, the launch vehicle would be the 11A57, a Molniya 8K78M with the Blok L stage removed and later the basis of the Soyuz booster
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KGB
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (КГБ), IPA: [kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnːəj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ] ( listen)), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of such preceding agencies as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD
NKVD
and MGB, a committee was attached to the Council of Ministers. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police
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Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Viktor Gorbatko
Viktor Vasilyevich Gorbatko (Russian: Ви́ктор Васи́льевич Горба́тко; December 3, 1934 – May 17, 2017) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 7, Soyuz 24, and Soyuz 37
Soyuz 37
missions.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Personal life and career2.1 Awards3 References 4 External linksEarly life[edit] Viktor Vasilievich Gorbatko was born on December 3, 1934, to Vasili Pavlovich and Matrena Aleksandrovna Gorbatko.[3] Viktor was raised in the Northern Caucasus
Northern Caucasus
settlement of Ventsy-Zarya in the Gulkevich district. Gorbatko had four siblings, an older brother, Boris, two older sisters, Elena and Valentina, and Ludmila, the youngest sibling. Viktor was given the opportunity to learn from Nadezdha Karaulova who taught from ABC books that were often censored by the Nazis of everything that had to do with the Soviet histories
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Georgi Shonin
Georgy Stepanovich Shonin (Ukrainian: Гео́ргій Степа́нович Шо́нін) (August 3, 1935 – April 7, 1997; born in Rovenky, Luhansk Oblast, (now Ukraine) but grew up in Balta of Ukrainian SSR) was a Soviet cosmonaut, who flew on the Soyuz 6 space mission. Shonin was part of the original group of cosmonauts selected in 1960. He left the space programme in 1979 for medical reasons. Shonin's family hid a Jewish family from the Nazis during WWII.[1] Shonin later worked as the director of the 30th Central Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Defence (Russia). He died of a heart attack in 1997. He was awarded:Hero of the Soviet Union Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR Order of Lenin Order of the October Revolution Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Red Star Ten commemorative medals Medal "25 Years of People's Power" (Bulgaria) Three medals from the Mongolian People's Republic Five medals from the Czechoslovak Socialist RepublicReferences[edit]
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Vasily Mishin
Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Russian: Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership. Mishin was born in der. Buvalyne, Pavlovo-Posadsky District of the Moscow region, Russia, and studied mathematics at the Moscow Aviation Institute.[1] Mishin was a Soviet rocket scientist and one of the first Soviet specialists to see Nazi Germany's V-2 facilities at the end of World War II, along with others such as Sergey Korolev, who preceded him as the OKB-1 design bureau head, and Valentin Glushko, who succeeded him.[2] Mishin worked with Korolev as his deputy in the Experimental Design Bureau[3] working on projects such as the development of the first Soviet ICBM as well in the Sputnik[2] and Vostok programs
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Soyuz Spacecraft
Soyuz (Russian: Сою́з, IPA: [sɐˈjus], lit. Union) is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today. The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft
Voskhod spacecraft
and was originally built as part of the Soviet manned lunar programs. The Soyuz spacecraft is launched on a Soyuz rocket, the most reliable launch vehicle in the world to date.[1][2] The Soyuz rocket design is based on the Vostok launcher, which in turn was based on the 8K74 or R-7A Semyorka, a Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile
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Yevgeny Khrunov
Yevgeni Vassilyevich Khrunov (Russian: Евге́ний Васи́льевич Хруно́в; September 10, 1933 – May 20, 2000)[1] was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 5/Soyuz 4 mission.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Education and career 3 Awards 4 References 5 External linksEarly life[edit] Yevgeny Khrunov was born on September 10, 1933 to Vasily Yegorevich and Agrafena Nikolayevna. Nicknamed “Zhenya” he had five brothers and two sisters. Khrunov’s family was a farming family. Khrunov married Svetlana Sokolyuk and had a son on July 13, 1959.[3] He was born in Prudy, Tula Oblast, Russian SFSR.[1] Education and career[edit] Khrunov began officially being schooled in 1941. Khrunov was initially interested in pursuing farming in studies. His interest in flying would soon follow after he watched the planes during wartime
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Georgi Katys
Georgi Petrovich Katys (Russian: Георгий Петрович Катыс; born 31 August 1926) is a Soviet cosmonaut.[1] Georgi Katys was born on 31 August 1926. Candidate of technical sciences degree from Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, Moscow 1963. He was selected as a cosmonaut on 28 May 1964. Later he became the chief of AN cosmonaut group. He was assigned as for Voskhod 1. He was involved in the development of Lunokhod, the Soviet Moon Rover. Since 1984, Professor at Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation. He is also a member of Russian Academy of Sciences and of the Academy of Cosmonautics. References[edit]^ "Georgi Petrovich Katys". Space Encyclopedia. External links[edit][1]This article about a space explorer is a stub
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Vladimir Shatalov
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov (Russian: Владимир Александрович Шаталов; born December 8, 1927) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew three space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Honours and awards 3 References 4 Further readingBiography[edit]Russian president Dmitri Medvedev
Dmitri Medvedev
awards Shatalov with the Order of Friendship on 12 April 2011 (Cosmonautics Day)Shatalov was born in Petropavlovsk. From 1971 to 1987, he was Commander of Cosmonaut Training, and Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre from then until 1991. Quote: "When we look into the sky it seems to us to be endless. We breathe without thinking about it, as is natural..
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Postage Stamp
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special custom-made paper, show a national designation and a denomination (value) on the front, and have an adhesive gum on the back or are self-adhesive. Postage stamps are purchased from a postal administration (post office) or other authorized vendor, and are used to pay for the costs involved in moving mail, as well as other business necessities such as insurance and registration. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, especially when sold to collectors who will not actually use them for postage. Stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover (e.g., packet, box, mailing cylinder) the customer wishes to send
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Kokchetav
Kokshetau (Kazakh: Kókshetaý), formerly known as Kokchetav (Russian: Кокчетав, until 1993) is the administrative center of Akmola Region, northern Kazakhstan. Population: 135,106 (2009 Census results);[2] 123,389 (1999 Census results).[2]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Climate 4 Industry 5 Transport 6 Sister cities 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] Kokshetau is some 300 kilometres (190 mi) north-west of the national capital of Astana. The Kokshetau area is known for its two national parks, Burabay and Kokshetau. The city of Kokshetau is located on the shores of Lake Kopa. History[edit] Kokshetau was founded in 1824 by Russian military as an outpost. The name of the city is of Kazakh origin literally meaning "a smoky-blue mountain". In 1868 it became a district center of Omskaya gubernia in the Russian Empire. In 1944 Kokchetav became the administrative center of the newly created Kokchetavskaya Oblast. In 1997 Kokshetau Oblast region was liquidated
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