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Borgia
The House of Borgia
House of Borgia
(/ˈbɔːrʒə/; Italian: [ˈbɔrdʒa]; Spanish and Aragonese: Borja [ˈborxa]; Valencian: Borja [ˈbɔɾdʒa]) was an Italo-Spanish noble family, which rose to prominence during the Italian Renaissance
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Aragonese Language
Aragonese (/ˌærəɡɒˈniːz/; aragonés [aɾaɣoˈnes] in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça
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Crown Of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(/ˈærəɡən/; Aragonese: Corona d'Aragón, Catalan: Corona d'Aragó, Spanish: Corona de Aragón) [nb 1] was a composite monarchy,[1] also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities[3] or kingdoms[2] ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
and the County
County
of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy
Italy
(from 1442) and parts of Greece
Greece
(until 1388)
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Count
Count
Count
(male) or countess (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.[1] The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin
Latin
comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term)
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Diois
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Die (French pronunciation: ​[di]; Occitan: Diá [ˈdjɔ]) is a commune, former episcopal see, and subprefecture of the Drôme department in southeastern France. The region around Die is known as the Diois. Die is best known for the Clairette de Die, a sparkling wine. It was a county in the High Middle Ages
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Valencian Language
In Spain:   Valencian
Valencian
CommunityRegulated by Acadèmia Valenciana de la LlenguaLanguage codesISO 639-3 –Glottolog NoneThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Toponymic Surname
A toponymic surname is a surname derived from a place name.[1] This can include specific locations, such as the individual's place of origin, residence, or of lands that they held, or can be more generic, derived from topographic features.[2] Toponymic surnames originated as non-hereditary personal by-names, and only subsequently came to be family names. The origins of toponymic by-names have been attributed to two non-mutually exclusive trends. One was to link the nobility to their places of origin and their feudal holdings and provide a marker of their status, while the other relates to the growth of the burgher class in the cities, partly via migration from the countryside. In London in the 13th century, toponymic surnames came to predominate
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Kingdom Of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon (Aragonese: Reino d'Aragón, Catalan: Regne d'Aragó, Latin: Regnum Aragonum, Spanish: Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia (which included the County of Barcelona and the other Catalan Counties), the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon. In 1479, upon John II of Aragon’s death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain
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Marquis
A marquess (UK: /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/;[1] French: marquis, [mɑʁki];[2] Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe
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Adultery
Adultery
Adultery
(from Latin
Latin
adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds. Though what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social, religious, and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.[1] A single act of sexual intercourse is generally sufficient to constitute adultery, and a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Historically, many cultures have considered adultery to be a very serious crime. Adultery
Adultery
often incurred severe punishment, usually for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation, or torture.[2] Such punishments have gradually fallen into disfavor, especially in Western countries
Western countries
from the 19th century
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Incest
Incest
Incest
is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.[1][2] This typically includes sexual activity between people in a consanguineous relationship (blood relations), and sometimes those related by affinity, stepfamily, those related by adoption or marriage, or members of the same clan or lineage. The incest taboo is and has been one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in many past societies.[3] Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages.[3] In societies w
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Simony
Simony
Simony
/ˈsɪməni/ is the act of selling church offices and roles. It is named after Simon Magus,[1] who is described in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9–24 as having offered two disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, payment in exchange for their empowering him to impart the power of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
to anyone on whom he would place his hands
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Theft
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it. [1][2][3]:1092–3 The word is also used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, embezzlement, larceny, looting, robbery, shoplifting, library theft, and fraud (that is, obtaining money under false pretenses).[1][2] In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to be synonymous with larceny;[2] in others, theft has replaced larceny. Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief
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Bribery
Bribery
Bribery
is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behavior (to the benefit/interest of the giver) that the recipient would otherwise not alter. Bribery
Bribery
is defined by Black's Law Dictionary
Black's Law Dictionary
as the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty.[1] Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery
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