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Bond Length
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. It is a transferable property of a bond between atoms of fixed types, relatively independent of the rest of the molecule.Contents1 Explanation 2 Bond lengths of carbon with other elements 3 Bond lengths in organic compounds 4 References 5 External linksExplanation[edit] Bond length
Bond length
is related to bond order: when more electrons participate in bond formation the bond is shorter. Bond length
Bond length
is also inversely related to bond strength and the bond dissociation energy: all other factors being equal, a stronger bond will be shorter. In a bond between two identical atoms, half the bond distance is equal to the covalent radius. Bond lengths are measured in the solid phase by means of X-ray diffraction, or approximated in the gas phase by microwave spectroscopy
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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Bismuth
Bismuth
Bismuth
is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth
Bismuth
is slightly radioactive and the most naturally diamagnetic element, and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals. Bismuth
Bismuth
metal has been known since ancient times, although it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Carbon Group
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called Group 14. In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still universally called Group IV
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Silicon
Silicon
Silicon
is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium, tin, and lead below. It is rather unreactive, though less so than germanium, and has a very large chemical affinity for oxygen; as such, it was first prepared and characterized in pure form only in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron (carbon sublimes rather than melts at atmospheric pressure, albeit at a higher temperature than boron). Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust
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Tin
Tin
Tin
is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Nitrogen Group
Legendprimordial elementsynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color: red=gas, black=solidv t eA pnictogen[1] /ˈnɪktədʒən/ is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the nitrogen family. It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called Group 15. In CAS and the old IUPAC systems it was called Group VA and Group VB respectively (pronounced "group five A" and "group five B", "V" for the Roman numeral 5).[2] In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still usually called Group V.[3] The "five" ("V") in the historical names comes from the "pentavalency" of nitrogen, reflected by the stoichiometry of compounds such as N2O5
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Phosphorus
Phosphorus
Phosphorus
is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. With a concentration of 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth's crust. Other than a few exceptions, minerals containing phosphorus are in the maximally oxidized state as inorganic phosphate rocks. The first form of elemental phosphorus that was produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus
Venus
(or Mercury)
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Arsenic
Arsenic
Arsenic
is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon. Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides
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Antimony
Antimony
Antimony
is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony
Antimony
compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.[4] Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. For some time, China
China
has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan
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Chalcogen
Legendprimordial elementnaturally occurring by radioactive decaysynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:red=gas, black=solidv t eThe chalcogens (/ˈkælkədʒɪnz/) are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well.[1] Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term "chalcogen" altogether, due to its very different chemical behavior from sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium
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Aluminum
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Sulfur
Sulfur
Sulfur
is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur
Sulfur
is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt
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Chromium
Chromium
Chromium
is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal[4] which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color,[5] because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium
Ferrochromium
alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium. Chromium
Chromium
metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness
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