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Bond Length
In molecular geometry , BOND LENGTH or BOND DISTANCE is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule . It is a transferable property of a bond between atoms of fixed types, relatively independent of the rest of the molecule. CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Bond lengths of carbon with other elements * 3 Bond lengths in organic compounds * 4 References * 5 External links EXPLANATION Bond length
Bond length
is related to bond order : when more electrons participate in bond formation the bond is shorter. Bond length
Bond length
is also inversely related to bond strength and the bond dissociation energy : all other factors being equal, a stronger bond will be shorter. In a bond between two identical atoms, half the bond distance is equal to the covalent radius . Bond lengths are measured in the solid phase by means of X-ray diffraction , or approximated in the gas phase by microwave spectroscopy
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Nitrogen
NITROGEN is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogen was suggested by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates ; this name derives from the Greek roots νἰτρον "nitre " and -γεννᾶν "to form"
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Lead
LEAD is a chemical element with symbol PB (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials; it is soft, malleable , and melts at a relatively low temperature. When freshly cut, it has a bluish-white tint; it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air. Lead
Lead
has the second-highest atomic number of the classically stable elements and lies at the end of three major decay chains of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal . Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature (lead and lead oxides react with both acids and bases) and tendency to form covalent bonds . Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state, rather than the +4 common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Nitrogen Group
A PNICTOGEN /ˈnɪktədʒᵻn/ is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table . This group is also known as the NITROGEN FAMILY. It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called GROUP 15. In CAS and the old IUPAC systems it was called GROUP VA and GROUP VB respectively (pronounced "group five A" and "group five B", "V" for the Roman numeral 5). In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still usually called GROUP V. The "five" ("V") in the historical names comes from the "pentavalency " of nitrogen, reflected by the stoichiometry of compounds such as N2O5. The term pnictogen (or pnigogen) is derived from the Ancient Greek word πνίγειν (pnígein) meaning "to choke", referring to the choking or stifling property of nitrogen gas
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Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus —but because it is highly reactive , phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. At 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth's crust. With few exceptions, minerals containing phosphorus are in the maximally oxidized state as inorganic phosphate rocks . The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer ), referring to the "Morning Star ", the planet Venus
Venus
(or Mercury ). The term "phosphorescence ", meaning glow after illumination, originally derives from this property of phosphorus, although this word has since been used for a different physical process that produces a glow
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Arsenic
ARSENIC is a chemical element with symbol AS and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals , usually in combination with sulfur and metals , but also as a pure elemental crystal . Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid . It has various allotropes , but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition ). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon . Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides , treated wood products, herbicides , and insecticides . These applications are declining, however. A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites
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Tin
TIN is a chemical element with symbol SN (from Latin Latin : stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table . It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite , which contains tin dioxide , SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead , and has two main oxidation states , +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes : at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air
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Silicon
SILICON is a chemical element with symbol SI and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-gray metallic luster, it is a tetravalent metalloid . It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium , tin , lead , and flerovium below. It is not very reactive, although more reactive than carbon, and has great chemical affinity for oxygen; it was first purified and characterized in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius . Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in dusts , sands , planetoids , and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates . Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals , making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen
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Aluminum
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames
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Indium
INDIUM is a chemical element with symbol IN and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium , but lower than lithium and tin . Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium , and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium
Indium
was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods . They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium
Indium
was isolated the next year. Indium
Indium
is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin
Latin
: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Carbon Group
The CARBON GROUP is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called GROUP 14. In the field of semiconductor physics , it is still universally called GROUP IV. The group was once also known as the TETRELS (from the Greek word tetra, which means four), stemming from the Roman numeral IV in the group names, or (not coincidentally) from the fact that these elements have four valence electrons (see below). The group is sometimes also referred to as TETRAGENS because it has four electrons in its outermost shell or the valence shell. This group is also called the CRYSTALLOGENS
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Antimony
ANTIMONY is a chemical element with symbol SB (from Latin : stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid , it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl . Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. In the West, it was first isolated by Vannoccio Biringuccio and described in 1540. For some time, China
China
has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan
Hunan
. The industrial methods for refining antimony are roasting and reduction with carbon or direct reduction of stibnite with iron. The largest applications for metallic antimony is an alloy with lead and tin and the lead antimony plates in lead–acid batteries
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Bismuth
BISMUTH is a chemical element with symbol BI and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens , chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony . Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead . It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth
Bismuth
is the most naturally diamagnetic element, and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals. Bismuth
Bismuth
metal has been known since ancient times, although it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties
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Tungsten
TUNGSTEN, also known as WOLFRAM, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The name tungsten comes from the former Swedish name for the tungstate mineral scheelite , from tung sten "heavy stone". Its name in Swedish is VOLFRAM, in order to distinguish it from scheelite. Tungsten is a hard, rare metal (under standard conditions, when uncombined), and is found naturally on Earth almost exclusively in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781, and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite . The free element is remarkable for its robustness, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3422 °C (6192 °F, 3695 K). It also has the second highest boiling point , at 5930 °C (10706 °F, 6203 K). Its high density is 19.3 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold , and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead
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Molybdenum
MOLYBDENUM is a chemical element with symbol MO and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead , since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum
Molybdenum
minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele . The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm . Molybdenum
Molybdenum
does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element
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